Barron v. Baltimore
A supreme court case which determined that the Bill of Rights did not apply to the actions of State governments
bill of attainder
An act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of a crime and delivering a punishment without a trial.
A portion of money given by the National government to a State government with only broad provisions on how it is to be spent
Powers that are held by both the National and State governments
is an association of sovereign political units that have delegated certain of their powers common institutions.
the idea of have separate, yet equally powerful national and state governments. Each unit is sovereign in and limited to its designated sphere.
Ex post fact law
a law that makes something punishable even if it was legal at the time in which it was committed.
A budget in which the legislature balances expenditures with expected revenues with no deficit.
A document that, like a constitution, specifies the basic policies, procedures, and institutions of a municipality
Form of local government in which several officials are elected to top positions that have both legislative and executive responsibilities.
The action of a governor to cancel all or part of the sentence of someone convicted of a crime, while keeping the conviction on the record.
A court ruling that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty but instead must be authorized by state government.
domestic dependent nation
A type of sovereignty that places an American Indian tribe in the United States outside the authority of the state government but
reliant on the Federal government for the interpretation and application of treaty provisions.
To send someone against their will to another state to face criminal charges.
An election that allows citizens to propose legislation or state constitutional amendments by submitting them to electorate for popular vote.
The authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending.
Missouri (Merit) Plan
the method of selection for state-level judges that is currently in use by 11 states; a commission selects candidates from which the governor can make their appointment. This appointment is then confirmed by a majority "yes" or "no" vote in the general election.
an election in which there is no formally declared association with a political party affiliation.
a slogan that has been used in many parts of the world where campaigns have arisen for universal suffrage. It represents the principle that each legislative district within a state should have the same number of eligible voters so that representation is equitably based on population
an organization designed to solicit votes from certain neighborhoods or communities for a particular political party in return for services and jobs if that party wins.
a movement in response to and against the prevalence of political machines, led by W. Wilson, T. Roosevelt, and R. M. LaFolette. The movement proposed reforms to public policy including: direct public voting to nominate party candidates, and allowing voters to directly enact laws. Newer Western States often incorporated these changes in their constitutions.
An action of voters in 23 states which places a recently passed bill on the ballot and expressing disapproval.
form of local government in which all eligible voters are invited to attend a meeting and vote on policy and management issues.
the legal obligation of the federal government to protect the interests of American Indian tribes.
a local government that is responsible for a particular function, such as schools, water, sewerage, or parks.