Psychology Exam 1: Chapter 3- Neuroscience and Behavior

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neurons

cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information

sensory neurons

carry incoming information from sense receptors to the brain via the spinal cord

motor neurons

carry outgoing information from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement

interneurons

connect sensory, motor, and other interneurons (act as relay stations)

cell body

life support center of a neuron

dendrites

receive and relay information to cell body

axon

transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands, connects to other dendrites via terminal buttons

myelin sheath

speeds up the neural impulse

action potential

electrical signal that travels down axon to synapse; fired when excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a threshold

all-or-none response

stimulation below threshold does not result in an action potential; stimulation at or above threshold is the same action potential

synapse

gap between the terminal buttons of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps and bind to sites on receiving neurons' dendrites

excess neurotransmitters

reuptake
enzyme deactivation
autoreceptors-relays information at stopping point

p-value

the probability value which proves that results are a direct function of the study (<0.05)

acetylcholine

enables muscles action memory and learning; alzheimer (lo)

dopamine

voluntary muscle control, reward and motivation; schizophrenia (hi), parkinsons (lo)

serotonin

affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal; depression (lo)

norephinephrine

controls alertness and arousal; mood disorders (lo)

glutamate

major excitatory neurotransmitter; seizures, migraines (hi)

GABA

major inhibitory neurotransmitter; seizures, insomnia (lo)

endorphines

affects pain and emotions; pain relief (hi)

agonists

increase action of neurotransmitters; mimic

antagonists

block function of neurotransmitters

peripheral nervous system

sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the body's organs and muscles; consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems

somatic nervous system

nerves that convey information into and out of the CNS; can be volunarily controlled to perceive, think, and coordinate behaviors

autonomic nervous system

nerves that involuntarily control blood vessels, body organs, and glands; functions to regulate bodily systems; made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic

sympathetic nervous system

arouses (fight or flight); part of autonomic

parasympathetic nervous system

calms (rest and digest); part of autonomic

the central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord. for very basic behaviors, spinal cord does not need input from the brain

spinal reflexes

simple pathways in the nervous system that contracts muscles

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