1. the organism must be capable of causing dx & we must be susceptible to dx (ex. open wound or a cold)
What 2 things must be present for disease to occur?
viral, bacterial, and fungal
What are the 3 major types of infections?
A disease that is caused by a microorganism that does not ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain circumstances is called a ___?
Treatment for a bacterial infection is ___?
This is a bacterial skin infection caused by staphylococcus aureaus and occasionally streptococcus pyogenes
Direct contact is needed, can appear in blister form, direct contact is needed for transmission
enlarged lynphnodes and tenderness caused by stretococcus pyogens
Tonsillitis & pharyngitis are both characterized by __?
A common way to diagnose strep throat is to look for __?
This bacterial disease is common in children
This is a more severe bacterial disease seen in children in which the heart and joints and CNS become inflamed
This is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects the lungs but signs can be seen in the palate and tongue.
TB is contracted by ___?
Isoniazid; months up to 2 years
The treatment for TB is ___ & it can last for ___?
This is a deep microbial infection caused by the anaerobic Actinomyces israeli and is characterized by lesions that eventually suppurate
Actinomycosis is contagious (T/F)
after a tooth extraction, or other trama
Actinomycosis commonly occurs when?
This disease is caused by Treponema pallidum
Primary-chancre, Secondary: mucous patch (most contagious) and Tertiary w/ gumma lesions
What are the 3 stages of Syphilis?
Secondary: mucous patch
Which stage is the most contagious for syphillis?
What stage of syphillis are the lesions referred to as gumma?
years after the initial infection if it was not treated properly
When is the tertiary stage likely to occur in syphillis?
hutchinsons incisors, mulberry molars and developmental disorders
These are common occurances involved with congenital syphillis?
Microscopically or with a more accurate blood test,
How is syphills diagnosed?
Penn, titer goes down if tx was succesful
How is syphillis treated?
In the high palate
Congential syphillis is common seen where?
This is also called trench mouth
Aka for Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is ___?
This is a non-communicable inflammatory disease of the gingiva resulting from local irritation
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
This is a painful necrosis of interdental papillae, foul odor, redness, swelling, ulceration and bleeding
This is an inflammation around a partially erupted or impacted tooth.
This is the tissue flap over the distal surface of an unerupted tooth
This is acute inflammation of the bone
This is long standing inflammation of the bone and is very painful
Osteomyelitis can happen to patients taking what medication?
If the patient is running a fever and an xray shows radiopacity & they are taking bi-phosphonate it could be __?
Another name for thrush is ___?
This results from overgrowth of yeastlike fungus usually caused by antibiotics
What is Candidiasis?
Antibotics, cancer chemotherapy, dentures, diabetes, HIV, or hypoparathyroidism, infancy, multiple myeloma, Primary T-lymphocyte deficientcy, or xerostomia
What are some ways Candida Albicans can cause candidiasis?
Candidiasis is caused by ___?
This type of candidiasis can be wiped away and is curd-like
This type of candidiasis is red and painful
Chronic Atrophic candidiasis
This type of candidiasis is usually caused by dentures
Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
This type of candidiasis has white lesions that do NOT wipe off
This can be caused by other things besides candidiasis; it forms at the corner of the mouth and can be red or fissured
Chronic mucotaneous candidiasis
This type of candidiasis occurs in immunocompromised patients & can be a skin lesion in the oral cavity or on genitals
Median Rhomboid Glossitis
This is associated with candidiasis but not exclusively and occurs in the middle of the tongue
How do we treat candidiasis?
Deep fungal infections
These can be chronic and non-healing, sometimes this resembles squamous cell carcinoma
Treated with systemic anti-fungals more than topically
How are Deep fungal infections treated?
HPV - Human Papillomavirus
What is the most common virus in the US?
What is the common wart called?
This lesion appears as a cauliflower shape and when found in children suggests abuse as it is sexually transmitted
Laser or surgically
Condyloma acuminatum is treated with __?
Focal epithelial hyperplasia
Heck's disease is also known as ___?
children; multiple what to pink lesions
Focal epitheliam hyperplasia is common in what population and looks like what?
Herpes Simplex I' inflammation, pain, red, swollen
Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis is a type of what and causes what type of symptoms?
Herpes simplex I
Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection is caused by ___?
Herpes on the finger is called?
How do we treat Herpes Type I?
Another name for chicken pox is ___?
Another name for shingles is ___?
There is no treatment, tx is for symptoms only!
What is the treatment for a viral infection?
This is also known as the kissing disease?
Mono is also known as ___?
swollen lymphnodes, fatigue and sore throat
What are typical signs of epstein barr?
This causes white on the lateral tongue borders & is commonly seen in HIV positive patients
This infection goes away on its own and forms vesicles on the soft palate and is common in children
This commonly occurs in children under 5 years of age. It is very contagious.
Fever, sore throat, headache
Acute lymphonodular pharyngitis generally has the following symptoms.
The mumps are also known as ___?
Mumps or Epidemic parotitis
This viral infection affects the salivary glands and is less common today due to a vaccine that is now available
identified in 1983
When was HIV discovered?
This was originally thought to be caused by sexual contact with an infected person or infants would get it through infected mothers?
How is HIV tested for?
oral candidiasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hairy luekoplakia, paillomavirus infections, kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma, gingival and perio dx, spontaneous gingival bleeding, apthous ulcers, salivary gland dx, and mucosal melanin pigmentation
What are some oral manifestations of HIV?