Pathology - Chapter 4 - Infectious Diseases

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Pathology - Chapter 4 - Infectious Diseases

1. the organism must be capable of causing dx & we must be susceptible to dx (ex. open wound or a cold)

What 2 things must be present for disease to occur?

viral, bacterial, and fungal

What are the 3 major types of infections?

Opportunnistic infection

A disease that is caused by a microorganism that does not ordinarily cause disease but becomes pathogenic under certain circumstances is called a ___?


Treatment for a bacterial infection is ___?


This is a bacterial skin infection caused by staphylococcus aureaus and occasionally streptococcus pyogenes

Direct contact is needed, can appear in blister form, direct contact is needed for transmission


enlarged lynphnodes and tenderness caused by stretococcus pyogens

Tonsillitis & pharyngitis are both characterized by __?

strawberry tongue

A common way to diagnose strep throat is to look for __?

scarlet fever

This bacterial disease is common in children

Rheumatic fever

This is a more severe bacterial disease seen in children in which the heart and joints and CNS become inflamed


This is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects the lungs but signs can be seen in the palate and tongue.


TB is contracted by ___?

Isoniazid; months up to 2 years

The treatment for TB is ___ & it can last for ___?


This is a deep microbial infection caused by the anaerobic Actinomyces israeli and is characterized by lesions that eventually suppurate


Actinomycosis is contagious (T/F)

after a tooth extraction, or other trama

Actinomycosis commonly occurs when?


This disease is caused by Treponema pallidum

Primary-chancre, Secondary: mucous patch (most contagious) and Tertiary w/ gumma lesions

What are the 3 stages of Syphilis?

Secondary: mucous patch

Which stage is the most contagious for syphillis?


What stage of syphillis are the lesions referred to as gumma?

years after the initial infection if it was not treated properly

When is the tertiary stage likely to occur in syphillis?

hutchinsons incisors, mulberry molars and developmental disorders

These are common occurances involved with congenital syphillis?

Microscopically or with a more accurate blood test,

How is syphills diagnosed?

Penn, titer goes down if tx was succesful

How is syphillis treated?

In the high palate

Congential syphillis is common seen where?

This is also called trench mouth

Aka for Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is ___?


This is a non-communicable inflammatory disease of the gingiva resulting from local irritation

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

This is a painful necrosis of interdental papillae, foul odor, redness, swelling, ulceration and bleeding


This is an inflammation around a partially erupted or impacted tooth.


This is the tissue flap over the distal surface of an unerupted tooth

Acute osteomyelitis

This is acute inflammation of the bone

Chronic osteomyelitis

This is long standing inflammation of the bone and is very painful


Osteomyelitis can happen to patients taking what medication?


If the patient is running a fever and an xray shows radiopacity & they are taking bi-phosphonate it could be __?


Another name for thrush is ___?

This results from overgrowth of yeastlike fungus usually caused by antibiotics

What is Candidiasis?

Antibotics, cancer chemotherapy, dentures, diabetes, HIV, or hypoparathyroidism, infancy, multiple myeloma, Primary T-lymphocyte deficientcy, or xerostomia

What are some ways Candida Albicans can cause candidiasis?

Candida Albicans

Candidiasis is caused by ___?

Psuedomembranous candidisis

This type of candidiasis can be wiped away and is curd-like

Erythematous candidisis

This type of candidiasis is red and painful

Chronic Atrophic candidiasis

This type of candidiasis is usually caused by dentures

Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis

This type of candidiasis has white lesions that do NOT wipe off

Angular cheilitis

This can be caused by other things besides candidiasis; it forms at the corner of the mouth and can be red or fissured

Chronic mucotaneous candidiasis

This type of candidiasis occurs in immunocompromised patients & can be a skin lesion in the oral cavity or on genitals

Median Rhomboid Glossitis

This is associated with candidiasis but not exclusively and occurs in the middle of the tongue

Anti-Fungal treatment

How do we treat candidiasis?

Deep fungal infections

These can be chronic and non-healing, sometimes this resembles squamous cell carcinoma

Treated with systemic anti-fungals more than topically

How are Deep fungal infections treated?

HPV - Human Papillomavirus

What is the most common virus in the US?

Verruca vulgaris

What is the common wart called?

Condyloma acuminatum

This lesion appears as a cauliflower shape and when found in children suggests abuse as it is sexually transmitted

Laser or surgically

Condyloma acuminatum is treated with __?

Focal epithelial hyperplasia

Heck's disease is also known as ___?

children; multiple what to pink lesions

Focal epitheliam hyperplasia is common in what population and looks like what?

Herpes Simplex I' inflammation, pain, red, swollen

Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis is a type of what and causes what type of symptoms?

Herpes simplex I

Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection is caused by ___?

Herpetic whitlow

Herpes on the finger is called?


How do we treat Herpes Type I?


Another name for chicken pox is ___?

Herpes Zoster

Another name for shingles is ___?

There is no treatment, tx is for symptoms only!

What is the treatment for a viral infection?

Infectious mononucleosis

This is also known as the kissing disease?


Mono is also known as ___?

swollen lymphnodes, fatigue and sore throat

What are typical signs of epstein barr?

Hairy leukoplakia

This causes white on the lateral tongue borders & is commonly seen in HIV positive patients


This infection goes away on its own and forms vesicles on the soft palate and is common in children

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease

This commonly occurs in children under 5 years of age. It is very contagious.

Fever, sore throat, headache

Acute lymphonodular pharyngitis generally has the following symptoms.

Epidemic parotitis

The mumps are also known as ___?

Mumps or Epidemic parotitis

This viral infection affects the salivary glands and is less common today due to a vaccine that is now available

identified in 1983

When was HIV discovered?


This was originally thought to be caused by sexual contact with an infected person or infants would get it through infected mothers?

blood test

How is HIV tested for?

oral candidiasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hairy luekoplakia, paillomavirus infections, kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma, gingival and perio dx, spontaneous gingival bleeding, apthous ulcers, salivary gland dx, and mucosal melanin pigmentation

What are some oral manifestations of HIV?

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