A glass element on a camera that focuses light rays so that the image of the object appears on the surface of the film.
Thin, flexible material comprised of base and emulsion layers, onto which light rays are focused and which is processed in chemicals to produce film images.
Exposed and developed film stock from which the master positive is struck. If projected, the negative would produce a reverse of the image, with dark areas appearing white and vice versa or, if color film , areas of color appearing as their complementary hue.
Reels of film that are shipped to movie theaters for exhibition. Digital cinema, which can be distributed via satellite, broadband, or on media such as DVDs, may soon replace film prints because the latter are expensive to create, copy, and distribute.
Panning and Scanning
Also called "full screen", the technique of re-shooting a widescreen film in order to convert it to the original television aspect ratio of 1.33 to 1. Rather than reproduce the original aspect ratio, as a letterboxed version does, a panned and scanned copy eliminates some of the visual information and introduces camera movement and editing that are not in the original.
A technique used to display a widescreen video image (with a 16:9 aspect ratio) on a standard television display (with a 4:3 aspect ratio). The widescreen image fills the width of the screen, with black bars above and below it.
A scene filmed and processed but not selected to appear in the final version of the film.
A technique of recording very few images over a long period of time - say, one frame per minute or per day.
A shot taken from a camera positioned above the subject, looking down at it.
A shot in which the subject is photographed from below, in which the camera looks upward toward the subject.
A shot taken from a position directly above the action, also called a "bird's eye shot."
A technique of shifting the camera angle, height or distance to take into account the motion of actors or objects within the frame.
a stationary camera moves up or down along a vertical axis
Platform on wheels, used for mobile camera shots
A shot filmed from an airplane or helicopter.
A device worn by a camera operator that holds the motion picture camera, allowing it to glide smoothly through spaces unreachable by cameras mounted on a crane or other apparatus.
A change of focus from one plane of depth to another. As the in0focus subject goes out of focus, another object, which has been blurry, comes into focus in either the background or the foreground.
A lens with a variable focal length that allows changes of focal length while keeping the subject in focus.
An effect created when more light than is required to produce an image strikes the film stock, so that the resulting image exhibits high contrast, glaring light, and washed out shadows. this effect may or may not be intentional on the filmmaker's part.
The period after principal photography during which editing and looping take place, and special visual effects are added to the film.
A technique to join live action with pre-recorded background images. A projector is aimed at half-silvered mirror that reflects the background, which the camera records as being located behind the actors.
A shot transition where shot A slowly disappears as the screen becomes black before shot B appears. A fade-in is the reverse of this process.
A technique of exposing film frames, then rewinding the film and exposing it again, which results in an image that combines two shots in a single frame.
A small, variable opening on a camera lens that regulates the amount of light entering the camera and striking the surface of the film.
A machine used to create optical effects such as fades, dissolves, and superimpositions. Most are now created digitally.
a device that facilitates the transfer of film images onto video tape
The shape of the image onscreen as determined by the width (horizontal dimension) of the frame relative to its height (vertical dimension). An image with an aspect ratio of 1.33:1 (Academy ratio) will be thirty-three percent wider than it is high.
A production term denoting a single uninterrupted series of frames exposed by a motion picture or video camera between the time it is turned on and the time it is turned off. Filmmakers shoot several takes of any scene and the film editor selects the most appropriate one to use.
A relatively long, uninterrupted shot, generally of a minute or more.
a shot taken from a level camera located approximately 5' to 6' from the ground, simulating the perspective of a person standing before the action presented.
A camera shot taken at a large distance from the subject. Using the human body as the subject, a long shot captures the entire human form.
A shot resulting from a static camera that is tilted to the right or left, so that the subject in the frame appears at a diagonal
The space between the camera and the subject it is filming. The effect of camera distance depends on other visual, narrative and sound details and patterns.
A pan executed so quickly that it produces a blurred image, indicating rapid activity or, sometimes, the passage of time.
A technique for moving the camera, on a dolly, along a specially built track. Such shots often trace character movement laterally across the frame or in and out of the depth of the frame.
A shot taken from a camera on a crane that moves three-dimensionally in space.
A shot taken by a camera that is held manually rather than supported by a tripod, crane, or stedicam. Generally, such shots are shaky, owing to the motion of the camera operator.
Depth of Field
The distance that appears in focus in front of and behind the subject. It is determined by the aperture, distance and focal length of lens.
An optical technique that divides the screen into two or more frames.
An effect created when too little light strikes the film during shooting. As a result the image will contain dark areas that appear very dense and dark (including shadows) and the overall contrast will be less than properly exposed image.
A technique used to join live action with a pre-recorded background image. A projector is placed behind a screen and projects an image onto it. Actors stand in front of the screen and the camera records them in front of the projected background.
A painting used on the set as a portion of the background.
A shot transition that involves the gradual disappearance of the image at the same time that a new image gradually comes into view.