Psychology

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126 terms

biological psychologist

Dr. Hernandez is studying neurotransmitter abnormalities in depressed patients. She would escribe herself as a

neurons

Dendrites are branching extensions of

aphasia

A car accident damaged areas of Cliff's left temporal and frontal lobes causing him to have difficulties speaking an understanding language. Cliff's disorder is called

autonomic nervous system

Heartbeat, digestion, and other self-regulating bodily functions are governed by the

axon

The longest part of a neuron carrying messages to a leg muscle is likely to be the

endorphins

Melissa has just completed running a marathon. She is so elated that she feels little fatigue or discomfort. Her lack of pain is probably due to the result of the release of

hormones; adrenal

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are both ____ that are released by the ________ gland.

dopamine

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity of the neurotransmitter

pituitary

The gland that regulates body growth is the

word recognition

Which is typically controlled by the left hemisphere: the left side of the body, perceptual skills, spatial reasoning, or word recognition?

heightened openness to suggestion

Hypnosis involves a state of

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle

Circadian rhythm refers to

insomnia

A recurring difficulty in falling asleep is called

periodic overwhelming periods of uncontrollable sleepiness

Narcolepsy is a disorder involving

REM sleep

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with

its underlying but censored meaning

According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to

decrease; increase

Stimulants ________ appetite and _________ self-confidence.

selective attention

Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrated the necessity of

tolerance

The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug before experiencing its effects is called

depressant; depressant

In large doses, alcohol is a _________; in small doses, it is a ____________.

gender schema

The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a

mutation

A random error in gene replication is known as a

natural selection

Evolutionary psychology studies the roots of behavioral and mental processes using the principles of

a single egg by a single sperm

Identical twins originate from the fertilization of

social harmony

A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

genetic profile

The human genome refers to our shared human

personality traits

A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying heredity influences on

heritable traits can be influenced by environmental factors

Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because

emotional excitability

An infants temperament refers most directly to its

observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process

Social learning theorists emphasize that

attachment

The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n)

adolescent

According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the

affirmation or self-defined ethical principles

According to Kohlberg, post-conventional morality involves

substance abuse

Severe and prolonged child sexual abuse places children at risk for

embryonic

The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.

brain abnormalities

The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include

warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated

If warmly supportive parents are especially like to have children with high self-esteem, this would most clearly indicate that

autism

An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with

the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view

According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to

sensorimotor

Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ___________ stage.

raises; dilates

In a stressful situation, the sympathetic nervous system __________ blood-sugar levels and ___________ the pupils of the eye.

endorphins

Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as

stimulates; increasing

Sleep deprivation ________ the production of body fat by ___________ levels of the stress hormone cortisol,

selective attention

While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates

collectivism

Displays of self effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value

gender schemas

Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates the impact of

stimulants; depressants

Amphetamines are to _______ as barbiturates are to ________.

certain events have a particularly strong impact on development

A critical period is a phase during which

secure attachment

Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of

postconventional

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.

glands

The endocrine system consists of

a biopsychosocial approach

An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by

low; low

Depressed mood states are linked to ______ levels of serotonin and __________ levels of norepinephrine.

preconventional

Jarrud thinks he should obey his techers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ___________ morality.

peripheral

The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the _________ nervous systems.

receive incoming signals from other neurons

The function of dendrites is to

autonomic nervous system

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the

barbiturates and opiates

depressants are drugs such as

develops through a series of stages

Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child

endorphins

Natural, opiate-like neurotranmitters linked to pain control are called

fraternal twins who were raised apart

Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are

religious beliefs

Adopted children are especially likely to have similar _______ if raised in the same home.

Freudian psychologists

The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents' child-rearing practices on children's personality has been most characteristic of

solve arithmetic problems

Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to

clinical

Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a _________ psychologist.

marijuana; hallucinogen

THC, the active ingredient in _______, is classified as a __________.

role confusion

Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would suggest that Jessica is experiencing

egocentrism

Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of

left cerebral hemisphere

Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.

psychodynamic

Focusing on the extent to which behavior is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the _______ perspective.

autism

Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others' states of mind is most characteristic of

the brain and the spinal cord

The central nervous system consists of

Erikson's psychosocial development theory

The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by

nature versus nurture

Debates as to whether alcohol abuse is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of

junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron

A synapse is a(n)

decreasing; decreasing

Over the last century, Western parents have placed _________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and _________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.

a PET scan

What procedure would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations.

authoritarian

"I don't care whether you want to do the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ___________ parenting style.

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

Consciousness is

adolescence

According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to

behaviorism

The school of thought in psychology that systematically turned away from the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was

reflex

A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)

investigating the personal suitability of various occupational and social roles

Erikson would have suggested that adolescents can most effectively develop a sense of identity by

sense of object permanence

During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a

body odors

By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers' and strangers'

integrity

According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of

Conditioned Response (CR)

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed at your eye. Blinking at the tone without a puff of air presented is a

operant conditioning

If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates

conditioned stimulus

Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of the person became a(n)

classical conditioning

If you have a "frightening experience" immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused after you hear that sound again. This best illustrates

conditioned stimulus

Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ of her anxiety.

shaping

In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially enforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She uses a procedure known as

conditioned

If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in the Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a __________ reinforcer.

Unconditioned Response (UR)

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed at your eye is a

observational learning

If one chimpanzee watches another chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates

observable behavior

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of

high; low

Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has _________ reliability and ________ validity.

heritability

The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the _________ of intelligence.

creativity

University students who focus on the interest and challenge of their schoolwork rather than on simply meeting deadlines and securing good grades are especially likely to demonstrate

prototype

We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our _________ of a bird.

reliability

When retested on the WAIS, people's second scores generally match their first scores quite closely. This indicates that the test has a high degree of

spelling bee

Girls are more likely to outperform boys in a

analytical intelligence

Superior performance on the Stanford-Binet most clearly corresponds with Sternberg's concept of

125

An 8-year-old who responds to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of

savant syndrome

Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as

emotional intelligence

When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates

bulimia nervosa

The onset of _______ often begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and gorged.

an excessive fear of becoming fat

Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by

adequate clothing; self-esteem

According to Maslow, our need for _______ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for _________.

drive reduction

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and

incentives

On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of

reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms

Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience

drive

An aroused, motivated state that often is triggered by a physiological need is called a(n)

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time

The set point is

instinct

A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)

drive-reduction theory

Victims of a famine will ofte eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of

epinephrine

The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of ________ into the bloodstream.

decreases salivation and increases blood pressure

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system

Andre, a competitive, easily-angered journalist

Who is the best example of Type A personality?

believe they cannot change a stressful situation

People tend to use emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping strategies when they

increases; increases

Aerobic exercise ________ the body's production of serotonin and _______ its production of endorphins.

facial expressions

The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through

resistance

The second phase of the general adaption syndrome is characterized by

respiration

A lie detector test using a polygraph monitors a person's

angry

We find especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are

irritable; calm

Type A personality is to Type B personality as __________ is to _________.

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