Cell & Cell Membrane

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Biology College 101

The chromosomal hereditary material is packaged in this organelle in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells. This organelle is

Nucleus

The peptodoglycan of the bacterial cell wall contains a carbohydrate matrix linked together by short chains of

Amino Acids

Prokaryotic cell movement is attributed to the

Cilia & Flagella

Photosynthetic bacterial membranes are located in the

Plasma Membrane

Plant cells often have a large membrane bound sac that is used for storing water and other substances. This organelle is called a

Central Vacuole

Some ribosomes are embedded into

rough ER

Ribosomes are

large mollecullar combination of protein & RNA

The eukaryotic organelle that is directky involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is called

golgi complex

In eukaryotes, mitochondria are the organelles primarily involved in

energy production

Nuclear pores apparently permit the passage of only

water

Necleolus of the nucleus is the site of

ribosome assembly

Chromosomes can be condensed into compact structures, visible with the light mrcroscope, but usually only

during cell division

Flattened sacks of membranes apparently involved in the packaging and expert of molecules synthesized inthe cell are known as

golgi apparatus

Peroxisomes in anima cells, and glyoxosomes in plant cells are examples of

microbodies

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain

DNA

the organeleinvolved in the oxygen requiring process by which the energy in macromolecules is stored in ATP is the

Mitochondria

The endosymbiotic theory is supported by the finding of nun nuclear DNA in

mitochondria & chloroplasts

Plants, fungi, & bacteria all have

cell walls

__ is not visible by use of a light microscope

large virus

The lipid layer that forms the foundation of cell membrane is primarily composed of molecules called

phoslipids

While water continually orients phoslipids into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus, the bilayer is considered to be ___ in nature

Fluid

Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane...one or more of the

solutes

plasma membrane is a thin sheet of lipid embedded w

proteins

membrane proteins are not soluble in water

hydrophobic

same concentration of dissolved molecules as of its outside enviroment

isotonic

transport of solute across a membrane, up its concentration gradient, using protein carriers driven by the expenditure of chemical energy

amphiathetic

the fluid nature of the membrane is attributed to a lateral movement

phoslipid molecules

outer surface of the plasma membrane there are marker molecules that identify the cell type, often these molecules are

carbohydrate schains

two solutions have unequal concentrations of a solute, the solution w the lower concentration

hypotonic

actual transport of protons by the proton pump is mediated by a transmembrane protein which undergoes a change in its

conformation

"cell eating"

phagocytosis

osmosis can only occur if water travels through the

pemeable membrane

cell walled organisms cannot carry out

endocytosis

in a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up with the result that

3 sodiums leave

the accumulation of amino acids and sugars in animal cels occurs through

coupled transport

cholesterol functions in the plasma membrane to

maintain fluidity

Fluid Mosiac Model included

membranes & proteins

If a cell biologist placed cells into an enviroment in which a chemical has been added that blocks the function of these transport proteins, which process will be blocked?

active transport

Requirement for facilitated diffusion include

always w the concentration gradient, never against

Researchers should use __solution yo cause blood cell lysis

hyposmotic

effect of cyclodextrin treatment

disruption of lipid rafts

__ Does not infuence membrane fluidity

hydrogen bonding

Cytoskeleton

is responsble for the cells shape & movement

Endosymbiosis

is the generally accepted evolutionary process which created the organelles, chloroplasts, and motochondria.

The delivery system of eukaryotic cells called the __ can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules

Golgi apparatus

DNA is tightly packaged with proteins into a membrane-bound structure called a

Nucleus

Mitochondria

is important in respiration, while chloroplasts are involved in photosynthesis

Microfilaments such as actin, microtubles, & the intermediate filaments form the cell suppporting structure called the

cytoskeleton

Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of the plasma membrane to produce __ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton.

extra cellular matrix

Geneticmaterial of which kind of cells is included in a single, circular molecule of DNA devoid of any histone proteins?

bacteria

Cell crawling is not essential for

cytoskeleton reorganization

One of the relationships that exists b/t ribosomes & lysosones is that

ribosomes produces enzymes

If you could create an artificial cell, you must include

ribosomes

a mutation in an integrin would not affect

communication b/t the nucleus & cytoskeleton

Hormones

are not found as membrane proteins

"cell drinking"

pinocytosis

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