Plant Kingdom Ch 24-2522 terms
Antheridium Male reproductive structure of nonvascular plants. Archeogonium Female reproductive structure of nonvascular plants. Cotyledon Seed leaf food reserve for the plant embryo. Pistil Female part of a flowering plant consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary. Stamen Male part of the plant consisting of the anther and filament. Lenticle Tiny openings in the stem for gas exchange with the stem. Petiole Slender stalk that attaches a flower to its stem.
Test Ch 28-3636 terms
Asymmetry An irregular shape like sponges that cannot be cut into two mirror images. Radial symmetry The body parts arranged around a central axis and can be cut anywhere in the same plane. Cephalization The anterior concentration of sensory structures and nerves. Open circulatory system The heart pumps fluid containing oxygen and nutrients into a body cavity. Coelom An empty body cavity for organ support. Closed circulatory system The heart pumps blood through a system of blood vessels. Endoskeleton The support system made of hard material embeded within the organism.
Vocab 3010 terms
Spiracle Structures through which air enters the arthropod's body. Nauplius The larval form of almost all crustaceans. Malpighian tubule Slender finger-like extensions of the arthropod's gut that are bathed by the blood surrounding them. Appendage Structures that extend from the arthropod's body wall. Caste The role played by an individual in a colony. Molting A process of shedding and discarding the exoskeleton. Trachea A network of fine tubes for respiration.
Vocab Ch 2912 terms
Cnidocyte Term for the stinging cells of Cnidaria Polyp Sessile tube-like body form of mollusks. Tegument The thick protective covering of cells in parasites. Nematocyst Harpoon-like hairs found inside cnidocytes. Trochophore The larval stage of both mollusks and annelids. Setae Term for the external bristles of annelids. Septa Body walls that separate the segments of most annelids.
Vocab Ch 378 terms
Fixed action patterns An innate behavior that always occurs in the same way. Sexual selection A mechanism to increase the ability of an individual to attract or acquire a mate. Learning The development of behavior through experience. Behavior An action or series of actions performed by an animal in response to a stimulus. Imprinting Learning that can only occur during a specific period early in life. Innate Genetically programmed behavior that is generally unlearned. Conditioning A more complex type of learning by associating an unrelated response to a stimulus.
Vocab Ch 1315 terms
Reproductive isolation The inability of interbreeding groups to produce fertile offspring. Industrial melanism The darkening of organisms over time due to industrial pollution. Speciation The process by which new species forms. Divergence The accumulation of differences between population groups. Ecological race Populations of the same species that differ genetically. Gradualism Model of evolution in which species formation occurs slowly over a long period of time Punctuated equilibrium Model of evolution in which short periods of rapid change in a species are separated by long periods…
Vocab Ch 129 terms
Microsphere Short chains of amino acids that gather into tiny vesicles. Hali-life The time it takes for one half of the mass of a radioactive isotope to change to another substance. Cyanobacteria The first ancient bacteria that were photosynthetic. Archeobacteria Bacteria without a peptidoglycan coat that may be the ancestor to present single-celled organisms. Eubacteria Bacteria with a peptidoglycan coat that cause disease and decay. Radioisotope Isotopes that change into more stable substances by radioactive decay. Radiometric dating Dating by the measurement of certain radioactive isotopes in rocks.
Vocab 1110 terms
Genetic engineering The process of manipulating genes for practical purposes. Recombinant DNA DNA made from two or more different organisms. Restriction enzymes Bacterial enzymes that recognize and bind to short sequences of DNA and cut it between specific nucl… Vector An agent used to carry the gene of interest into another cell. Plasmid Circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently of the main chromosomes of bacteria. Gene cloning A process that makes many copies of the gene of interest each time the host cell reproduces. Electrophoresis A technique that uses an electrical field within a gel to separate molecules by their size and shape.
Vocab 10B9 terms
Point mutation Mutations that change one or just a few nucleotides in a gene or chromosome. Operator A piece of DNA that overlaps the promoter and serves as an off and on switch. Anticodon A three nucleotide sequence that is complementary to a codon. Intron Long segments of nucleotides that contain no coding information. Ribosomal RNA Molecules that are part of the structure of ribosomes. Operon A group of genes in bacteria that code for enzymes involved in the same function, their promoter sit… Repressor A protein that binds to an operator and physically blocks RNA polymerase from bonding to a promoter …
Vocab 912 terms
DNA replication The process of making a copy of DNA. DNA polymerase An enzyme that adds nucleotides to the exposed nitrogenous bases according to the base pairing rules. Replication fork Two areas on either side of the DNA strand where the double helix separates. Deoxyribose The five carbon sugar in DNA. Double helix The name for the two strands of DNA twisted around each other. Nucleotide The three part subunits of DNA. DNA helicase The enzyme that opens the double helix by breaking hydrogen bonds.
Vocab 10A10 terms
Codon A series of three nucleotide sequences on mRNA that each stand for one amino acid. Transcription Instructions on DNA for making a protein are transferred from a gene to an RNA molecule. RNA polymerase An enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides. Messenger RNA A form of RNA that carries instructions for making a protein from a gene and carries it to the site … Translation Cells read the instructions on mRNA to put together amino acids that make up a protein. Ribonucleic acid A molecule of nucleotides linked together using the sugar ribose and nitrogenous base uracil. Transfer RNA Molecules that are single strands of RNA that temporally carry a specific amino acid at one end.
Vocab 8B Heredity11 terms
Pedigree A family history of traits. Incomplete dominance Displays a trait inherited from both parents. Probability The likelihood a specific event will happen. Sex-linked A trait with an allele located on the X chromosome. Punnett square A diagram that predicts the expected outcome of a genetic cross by showing all possible outcomes. Test cross A method to determine the genotype of dominant phenotypes by crossing with a homozygous recessive ty… Codominant Two dominant alleles are expressed and both forms of the trait are visible.
Vocab 8A Mendel's Laws11 terms
Allele The different variations of a gene. True breeding When all of the offspring displays only on form of a particular trait Heterozygous The condition where two alleles for a trait are different. Phenotype The physical appearance of enetic traits. Recessive The trait not expressed when the dominant form of the trait is present. Homozygous Term for when two alleles for a trait are identical. Dominant The trait that is always expressed.
Vocab 7B Meiosis7 terms
Clone An organism that is genetically identical to its parent. Sporophyte The diploid phase in a life cycle that produces spores. Spore Haploid reproductive cell produced by meiosis. Fertilization Process in which eggs and sperm join. Gametophyte The haploid phase production of gametes by mitosis. Life cycle The entire lifespan of an organism from one generation to the next. Sexual reproduction Two parents each form haploid reproductive cells, which join to form offspring.
Vocab 7A Meiosis8 terms
Crossing over Process that occurs when portions of a chromatid on homologous chromosomes are broken and exchanged … Asexual reproduction A single parent passes copies of all its chromosomes to identical daughter cells. Oogenesis The process by which gametes are formed in females. Sperm Male reproductive cells that form a tail. Meiosis A form of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes when forming reproductive cells. Independent assortment The random distribution of homologous chromosomes. Ovum Female reproductive cell that develops leaving three polar bodies.
Vocab 6A Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction10 terms
Gene A segment of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule. Binary fission Asexual reproduction that produces two identical offspring. Chromosome DNA and proteins coil into this structure. Haploid A cell containing on set of chromosomes. Centromere The point where two chromatids of a chromosome are attached. Gamete An organism's reproductive cell. Chromatid Two exact copies of DNA that make up a chromosome.
Vocab 6B Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction9 terms
Mitosis Process of cells dividing into two cells with identical nuclei. Spindle Cell structures made up of centrioles and microtubule fibers Interphase The cell division stage in which a cell spends most of its life. Karyotype A photograph of chromosomes arranged in order from largest to smallest. Cytokinesis Term for the division of the cytoplasm. Cancer A disease caused by uncontrolled cell division. Cell cycle A repeating sequence of cellular growth and division during the life of an organism.
Vocab 5B Photosynthesis/Respiration8 terms
Anaerobic Metabolic processes that do not require oxygen. Glycolysis The first stage of cellular respiration. Fermentation Anerobic respiration that results in lactic acid or alcohol. Kreb's cycle A series of enzyme-assisted reactions that is the second stage of respiration. Carbon dioxide fixation The transfer of carbon dioxide to organic compounds. Aerobic Metabolic processes that require oxygen to occur. Calvin cycle The process of carbon dioxide fixation that occurs in the dark cycle of photosynthesis.
Vocab 5A Photosynthesis/Respiration10 terms
Electron transport chain A series of molecules through which electrons are passed in respiration. NADPH An electron carrier providing high energy electrons for the dark cycle of photosynthesis. Autotroph Organisms that use the energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to make organic substances. Photosynthesis The process by which the light energy of the sun is converted to chemical energy. Heterotroph Organisms that get energy from eating other organisms instead of directly using sunlight or inorgani… Thylakoids Dish-shaped structures containing clusters of pigments used in photosynthesis. Chlorophyll The primary pigment used in photosynthesis.
Vocab 4B Cells and Their Environment7 terms
Receptor protein A substance that binds to a specific signal molecule enabling the cell to respond. Second messenger Molecule that amplifies the effect of a signal molecule. Concentration gradient The difference in concentration of a substance across a space. Carrier protein Molecules that bind to a specific substance on one side of a cell membrane, carry the substance acro… Passive transport The movement of substances across a cell membrane without using energy. Isotonic A solution that produces no change in cell volume due to osmosis. Sodium-potassium pump Carrier protein that uses energy to pump ions against the concentration gradient.
Vocab 4A Cells and Their Environment10 terms
Hypertonic A solution in which the salt concentration is higher outside the cell. Diffusion The movement of any substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration… Equilibrium A condition in which the concentration of a substance is equal across a space. Osmosis The diffusion of water though a selectively permeable membrane. Hypotonic A solution in which the salt concentration is lower outside the cell. Exocytosis Thee movement of substances by the use of a vesicle to the outside of cell. Facilitated transport The transport of sugars and amino acids into a cell without the use of energy.
Vocab 3B Cell Stucture10 terms
Flagellum Long threadlike structures protruding from the surface of a cell for locomotion. Prokaryote A single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and internal compartments. Organelle A structure that carries out a specific action in a cell. Eukaryote An organism with cells containing a nucleus and internal compartments. Cytoskeleton Consists of many structures suspended in a system of microscopic fibers. Mitochondrion Organelle that harvests energy form organic components to manufacture ATP. Ribosomes Name for cellular structures where proteins are made.
Vocab 3A Cell Structure10 terms
Cytoplasm The fluid found in the interior of a cell. Phospholipid A molecule with a polar head and two nonpolar tails that make up a cell. Resolution The measure of the clarity of an object. Magnification The ability to mak an object appear larger than its actual size. Scanning Tunneling Microscope A device that uses a probe to measure voltage differences in electrons to produce a three dimensiona… Chloroplast Organelles that use light energy to make carbohydrates from the sun. Endoplasmic reticulum Organelle where proteins are made on its surface.
Vocab 2B Chemistry of Life10 terms
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) A single nucleotide with two energy storing phosphate groups. Enzyme A substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction. Carbohydrate Organic compounds made of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Active site Deep folds in the surfaces of molecules for recognition. Substrate Name of the substance upon which an enzyme acts. Protein A long chain of molecules called amino acids. Activation energy The energy required to start a chemical reaction.
Vocab 2A Chemistry of Life10 terms
Base Any compound that forms hydroxide (OH-) ions when dissolved in water. Acid Any compound that forms hydronium ions when dissolved in water. Compound A substance made of the bonded atoms of two or more different elements. Ion An atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons. Solution A mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance. Adhesion The name for the attraction between different substances. Element A substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by chemical means.