Section 4.1 "Earth's Changing Surface"11 terms
fossil The preserved remains or traces of living things. paleontologist A scientist who studies fossils to learn about organisms that lived long ago. sedimentary rock The type of rock that is made of hardened sediment. petrified fossil A fossil in which minerals replace all or part of an organism. mold A fossil formed when an organism buried in sediment dissolves, leaving a hollow area. cast A fossil that is a copy of an organism's shape, formed when minerals seep into a mold. carbon film A type of fossil consisting of an extremely thin coating of carbon on rock.
Section 2.1 "Earth's Changing Surface"7 terms
weathering The chemical and physical processes that break fown rock at Earth's surface. erosion The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock and soil. mechanical weathering The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces. ice wedging Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands. abrasion The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind. chemical weathering The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. permeable Characteristic of a material that is full of tiny, connected air spaces that water can seep through.
Section 5.5 & 5.6 "Inside Earth"2 terms
5.5: foliated Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands. 5.6: rock cycle A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly change rocks from one kind to anot…
Section 5.3 "Inside Earth"8 terms
sediment Small, solid pieces of material the comes from rocks or organisms. erosion The destructive process in which water or wind loosen and carry away fragments of rock. deposition The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it. compaction The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight. cementation The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one… clastic rock Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure. organic rock Sedimentary rock that forms where remains of organisms are deposited in thick layers.
Section 5.2 "Inside Earth"3 terms
extrusive rock Igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface. intrusive rock Igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface. porphyritic texture An igneous rock texture in which large crystals are scattered on a background of much smaller crysta…
Section 5.1 "Inside Earth"5 terms
texture The look and feel of a rock's surface. grain A particle of mineral of other rock that gives a rock its texture. igneous rock A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface. sedimentary rock A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are p… metamorphic rock A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical react…
Section 3.3 "Inside Earth"8 terms
shield volcano A wide, gently-sloping mountain made of layers formed by quiet eruptions. cinder cone A steep, cone-shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up round a volc… composite volcano A tall, cone-shaped hill or mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other … caldera The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano's magma chamber collapses. volcanic neck A deposit of hardened magma in a volcano's pipe. dike A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers. sill A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes itself between layers of rock.
Section 3.2 "Inside Earth"15 terms
magma chamber The pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects. pipe A long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to Earth's surface. vent The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano. lava flow The area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano's vent. crater A bowl-shaped area that forms around a volcano's central opening. silica A material that is formed from the elements of oxygen and silicon; silica is found in magma. pahoehoe A hot, fast-moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils.
Section 3.1 "Inside Earth"6 terms
volcano A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface. magma The molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle. lava Liquid magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when liquid lava hardens. Ring of Fire A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean. island arc A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench. hot spot An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it.
Section 2.2 "Inside Earth"11 terms
focus The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake. epicenter The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus. seismic wave A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake. P wave A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground. S wave A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side. surface wave A type of seismic wave that forms where P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface. seismograph A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth.
Section 2.1 "Inside Earth"17 terms
earthquake The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface. stress A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume. deformation A change in the volume or shape of Earth's crust. shearing Stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions. tension Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle. compression Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks. fault A break in Earth's crust where slabs or rock slip past each other.
Section 1.5 "Inside Earth"8 terms
plate A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continenta… scientific theory A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations. plate tectonics The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents … fault A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other. transform boundary A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions. divergent boundary A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other. rift valley A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
Section 1.4 "Inside Earth"5 terms
mid-ocean ridge The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produces; a divergent plate boundary. sonar A device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves. sea-floor spreading The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor. deep-ocean trench A deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle. subduction The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a c…
Section 1.3 "Inside Earth"3 terms
Pangaea The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's cont… continental drift The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface. fossil A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
Section 1.1 "Inside Earth"16 terms
geologist A scientist who studies the forces that make and shape planet Earth. rock The material that forms Earth's hard. geology The study of planet Earth. constructive force A force that builds mountains and landmasses on Earth's surface. destructive force A force that slowly wears away mountains and other features on the surface of Earth. continent A great landmass surrounded by oceans. seismic wave A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
Section 4.4 "Weather and Climate"3 terms
greenhouse gases Gases in the atmosphere that trap heat. global warming A gradual increase in the temperature of Earth's atmosphere. chlorofluorocarbons Chlorine compounds formerly used in air conditioners, refrigerators, and spry cans; also called CFCs.
Section 4.2 "Weather and Climate"8 terms
rain forest A forest in the tropical wet climate zone that gets plenty of rain all year. savanna A tropical grassland with scattered clumps of trees; found in the tropical wet-and-dry climate zone. desert A region that gets less than 25 centimeters of rain a year. steppe A prairie or grassland found in the semiarid climate region. humid subtropical A wet and warm climate area on the edge of the tropics. subarctic A climate zone that lies north of the humid continental climate zone, with short, cool summers and l… tundra A polar climate region, found across northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia, with short, cool summers a…
Section 4.1 "Weather and Climate"9 terms
climate The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and clouds in an area. tropical zone The area near the equator, between about 23.5° north latitude and 23.5° south latitude. polar zones The areas near both poles, from about 66.5° to 90° north and 66.5° to 90° south latitudes. temperature zones The area between the tropical and polar zones, from about 23.5° to 66.5° north and 23.5° to 66.5° so… marine climate The climate of some coastal regions, with relatively warm winters and cool summers. continental climate The climate of the centers of continents, with cold winters and warm or hot summers. windward The side of mountains that faces the oncoming wind.
Section 2.4 "Weather and Climate"9 terms
evaporation The process by which water molecules in liquid water escape into the air as water vapor. humidity A measure of the amount of water vapor in the air. relative humidity The percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold at that t… psychrometer An instrument used to measure relative humidity, consisting of a wet-bulb thermometer and a dry-bulb… condensation The process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water. dew point The temperature at which condensation begins. cumulus Clouds that form less than 2 kilometers above the ground and look like fluffy, rounded piles of cott…
Section 2.3 "Weather and Climate"11 terms
wind The horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure. anemometer An instrument used to measure wind speed. wind-chill factor Increased cooling caused by wind. local winds Winds that blow over short distances. sea breeze The flow of air from an ocean or lake to the land. land breeze The flow of air from land to a body of water. monsoon Sea and land breezes over a large region that change direction with the seasons.
Section 2.2 "Weather and Climate6 terms
thermal energy The energy of motion in the molecules of a substance. temperature The average amount of energy of motion in the molecules of a substance. thermometer An instrument used to measure temperature, consisting of a thin, glass tube with a bulb on one end t… heat The energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one. conduction The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that is touching. convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid.
Section 2.1 "Weather and Climate"6 terms
electromagnetic wave A form of energy that can travel through space. radiation The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. infrared radiation A form of energy with wavelengths that are longer than visible light. ultraviolet radiation A form of energy with wavelengths that are shorter than visible light. scattering Reflection of light in all directions. greenhouse effect The process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and …