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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Describe the mechanisms of action of Ach on cardiac pacemaker cells
  2. Review the notable features of transmission at the neuromuscular junction
  3. Tetanus toxin
  4. Spinal cord
  5. What is an inversion?
  1. a Is a chromosome mutation in which a chromosomal segment breaks off and then reattaches in reverse orientation to the same chromosome
  2. b provides pathway for somatosensory info received from most of the body, carries motor info from brain to control somatic muscles and viscera
  3. c every muscle fiber has only one excitatory synapse at its NMJ from one motor neuron ONLY; NMJ is where acetylcholine is released by exocytosis; every impulse in a motor neuron evokes an impulse in a muscle fiber; there are no inhibitory synapses in muscle fibers
  4. d exotoxin enters nerve endings of peripheral nerves and is transported by retrograde axonal transport to cell bodies - enters inhibitory interneurons and prevents normal release of inhibitory transmitter - hyperreflexia - both agonist and antagonist muscles experience stimulation
  5. e Ach binds to M2 receptor - activate inhibitory Gi which reduces activity of adenylyl cyclase, decreases cAMP - closes ca channels indirectly - hyperpolarization of pacemaker cells -> slower heart rate

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. tectum on dorsal side, tegumentum, cerebral peduncles, interpeduncular fossa, cerebral aqueduct, substantia nigra (Parkinson's), medial lemniscus, red nucleus know how to draw
  2. The inferior surface of the temporal lobe
  3. 1) oral, 2-3 h (so comparable to the latter 2 mustards)
    2) Crosslinker - DNA/protein.
    3) Myelo
    4) They all have 2-9 carbon alkyl chains stuck on them...the chain can't be 6-7, though, or it loses antitumor properties.
  4. CN II - myelinated by oligodendrocytes - no chance of repair
  5. Between the 2 hemispheres and is joined in the midline by the anterior communicating artery

5 True/False questions

  1. Communicating hydrocephalusdue to impaired or blocked CSF absorption due to thickening of arachnoid villi - enlargement of ALL ventricles; can be due to tumor of choroid plexus - excess CSF secretion


  2. Relate the electrical properties of cable-like structures, such as axons and dendrites, to their length constantscapillary endothelial cells act as selective barrier between brain and blood; barrier allows passage of passage of blood gases and uptake of glucose - tight junctions cause route of transport to be transcellular (depends on passive diffusion, facilitative diffusion/carriers/transporters, lipid solubility - glut1 for glucose, neutral AA transporter for L-dopa, Na cotransporter for glycine)


  3. What is unique about the lateral surface of the occipital lobe?the sylvian fissure


  4. Primary Motor CortexIn frontal lobe. Planning, control, and execution of movement (contralaterally)


  5. body cannot digest galactosereception and perception of VISUAL information


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