Audition/Taste/Smell (CH. 9) part 1- audition

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oval windowmembrane on cochlea -transmits waves through the viscous fluid of the inner earinner earcontains a snail shaped structure called the chocleahair cells (HCs)auditory receptors residing in the cochlea, between the basilar and tectorial membranes -when displaced by vibrations in the fluid of the cochlea, these cells excite the cells of the auditory nerve -depolarize via entry of K+ and Ca2+organ of corticollective name of all structures in scale media (hair cells, etc.) that convert sounds into neural activitysterocilliahair-like objects on hair cells, that are deflected by pressure (i.e. sound) and depolarize the membrane -non-selective K+ and Ca2+ channels are opened in hair cells when they movehow is sound coded into electrical impulses?1. temporal coding 2. place codingtemporal codingencoding of sound as a function of number of action potentials per second at same frequency of the actual sound -AP that is generated will have the exact same pattern frequency as the soundwave (but the MAX AP frequency is only 1 ms)place codingeach area along the basilar membrane has hair cells sensitive to only one specific frequency of sound wave -this is the classing "labeled-line coding" strategyamusiatone deafness-the impaired detection of frequency changesauditory pathwaysafferents from the cochlea travel via the vestibulocchlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), ipsilaterally, to the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem -then axons project both ipsi and contralaterally to superior olivary nucleus -from here, inferior colliculus--> medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) ---> cortical regions important for auditory processingwhy do the superior olivary nucles and inferior colliculus play important roles in sound localization?temporal segregation of bilateral inputsprimary auditory cortex (A1)located in the superior temporal corext, it is the destination for most info. from the auditory system *each hemisphere receives most of its info. from the contralateral side -important for processing complex sounds (mostly in our daily experience)what are the 2 main streams of auditory processing in the cortex?1. dorsal stream- focuses on localization 2. ventral stream- analyzes components of sound