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what do age related changes in the digestive system reflect?

changes in other body systems; digestion and absorption continues to occur normally

age-related changes in other systems due to digestive system changes include what?

1. a slowed rate of epithelial stem cell division; 2. a decrease in smooth muscle tone; 3. the appearance of cumulative damage; 4. an increase in cancer rates; 5. numerous changes in other systems

what happens when the diaphragm and phrenic nerve are irritated?

a person cannot stop hiccoughing

what is gastrectomy?

a surgical removal of the stomach

why is a gastrectomy performed?

a potential treatment for stomach cancer

what is entritis?

irritation of the small intestine by toxins or other irritants

what does entritis cause?

diarrhea, due to frequent peristalsis along the small intestine

what is gastritis?

an inflammation of the gastric mucosa

what is achalasia?

the blockage of the lower part of the esophagus due to weak peristalsis and malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter

what is colitis?

irritation of the colon, leading to abnormal bowel function

what is cirrhosis?

a condition caused by the destruction of hepatocytes by drug exposure, viral infection, ischemia, etc.

what is diverticulosis?

a condition in which pockets form in the colon, usually the sigmoid colon

what is cholelithiasis?

a condition in which gallstones are present in the gallbladder

what is a colostomy?

attachment by surgical procedure to the abdominal wall, bypassing the distal portion of the large intestine

what is gastric stapling?

a surgical procedure to promote weight loss by blocking off a large portion of the gastric mucosa

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