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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 5--Cognitive Development in Infancy
Terms in this set (52)
__________ Theory of Infant Development deals with cognitive processes and the sensorimotor stage
Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
This scheme is physical activities that characterize infancy.
This is a cognitive scheme that develop in childhood.
Using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences
Adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences.
Grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system.
Mechanism by which children shift from one stage of though to the next.
Individuals go through ____ stages of development.
This lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordination sensory experiences.
The substages of this are simple reflexes, first habits and primary circular reactions, secondary circular reaction, coordination of secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity, internalization of schemes.
Understanding that objects and events continue to exist: when they cannot directly be see, heard, or touched.
Part of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage. Occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B).
Core knowledge approach
Part of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage. Infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems
The consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence.
The focusing of mental resources on select information. Orienting/investigate process, sustained attention.
Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus.
Increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation.
This requires: ability to track another's behaviors, one person's directing another's attention, reciprocal interaction.
The retention of information over time.
Without conscious recollection. Memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically.
Conscious remembering of facts and experiences.
Most adults can remember little if anything from their first three years of life. One reason older children and adults have difficulty recalling events fro their infancy and early childhood is that during these early years the prefrontal lobes of the brain are immature.
This involves flexibility and adaptability.
Occurs after a delay of hours or days.
Cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or ideas.
These categorizations are based on similar perceptual features of objects, such as size, color, and movement, as well as parts of objects, such as legs for animals.
This categorization is not formed until about 7 to 9 months of age. Rather than just making perceptual discriminations between different categories.
This is a way to measure infant development. It is a score that combines subscores in: motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gesell assessment of infants.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
This is a way to measure infant development. Used to assess infant behavior and predict later development. The current version has three components: mental scale, motor scale, infant behavior profile.
Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence
This is a way to measure infant development. It evaluates an infant's ability to process information.
Tests for predicting infant's intelligence contain items related to perceptual-motor development. Include measures of what kind of interaction?
Form of communication. Spoken, written, or signed. Based on a system of symbols. Consists of the words used by a community and the rules for varying and combining them.
Ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules.
The sound system of a language. This is the smallest sound unit in a language.
The system of meaningful units involved in word formation.
The system that involves the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.
The system that involves the meaning of words and sentences.
The system of using appropriate conversation and knowledge of how to effectively use language in context.
Crying, cooing, babbling, gestures, one word, two words, telegraphic speech
What is the order of how language develops? (7 things)
Part of the first words in language. Applying a word to objects that are inappropriate for the word's meaning. Ex: anything with four legs is a dog.
Part of the first words in language. Applying a word too narrowly. Calling a cabbage patch doll a "doll" but not a Barbie a "doll"
This is part of two-word utterances in language. Use of short and precise words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxiliary verbs, and other connectives.
In the brain's left frontal lobe that is involved in speech production. Example: tan.
In the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension.
Language acquisition device
Chomsky's term that describes a biological endowment enabling the child to: detect the features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.
With this view of language, children learn language in specific contexts. This also says that biology and experience contribute to language development.
_____________ development is linked to: family's socioeconomic status, type of talk that parents direct to their children.
This is a higher pitch than normal, with simple words and sentences.
This is a strategy to enhance child's acquisition of language. Rephrasing something the child has said, perhaps turning it into a question or restating the child's immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical sentence.
This is a strategy to enhance child's acquisition of language. Restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said.
This is a strategy to enhance child's acquisition of language. Identifying the names of objects.
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