64 terms

AP Environmental Science Test: Chapter 5

Apex predators
Alligators (ecological role-niche-big depression(gator holes)) Foundation species

-No predators, at the top of the food chain
Species diversity
Species richness and evenness
Species richness
Number of different species- closest to the equator
Species evenness
Number of individuals in that species
Law of Competitive Exclusion
Two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist
Resource Partitioning
Using a limited resource at different times or different places
Native Species
Thrives; was found originally in its location
Ex: Island fox on Santa Cruz Island
Indicator species
Species that serve as early warnings of damage to a community or an ecosystem
ex: trout (oxygen in water) canaries (pollution in air)
Keystone species
Help determine the types and numbers of other species in a community
Ex: Otters
Foundation species
Species that can create and enhance habitats
Ex: alligators: gator holes
Bevers- dams
Interference competition
When two or more organisms directly try to limit access to a resource DIRECTLY
Exploitation competition
When one group uses a resource faster than another, INDIRECTLY limiting a resource
Character displacement
Evolutionary process where a beneficial adaption can "displace" an older one
resource partitioning----> competition
Inertia (persistance)
Ability of a system to resist disturbances
Keeps population levels stable
Ability to bounce back from a disturbance
Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
Fairly frequent, moderate disturbances produce the greatest diversity
Theory of Island Biogeography
The bigger the more diverse, the father from the mainland the less diverse
Group of living organisms of the same species
spacial distribution; three types
clumped, even, and random
Pre-reproductive Age
Not mature enough to reproduce
Reproductive Age
Those capable of reproduction
Post-reproductive Age
Those too old to reproduce
Individuals of a population moving IN
Individuals of a population moving OUT
Biotic potential
Population's capacity for growth
Density Dependent
Food shortages and disease are an example of
Density Independent
Natural disasters are an example of
Competition within competing with your own species
Competition between competing with another species
Regulates population size---->predator consumes prey
Ex: armor, camouflage, chemicals, and mimicry
Parasite feeds off of his host but does not kill it right away (+,-)
Endoparasites: within (tapeworm)
Ectoparasites: from the outside (tick)
Both species cooperate and benefit (+,+)
Ex: Plant/Pollinator
One species benefits, the other is not affected (+,n)
Ex: Epiphytes/ Trees
Ecological succession
The gradual change in species composition on a given area
Establishment of communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil
Takes several centuries to 1,000's of years to make soil
Communities develop in places containing soil or sediment
Pioneer species
First to colonize a new area. It can tolerate a wide range of temperatures and conditions (A generalist : ) )
Climax community
Stable point, you cannot predict when an area will become this. It is reset by other disturbances
Legumes show what kind of symbiosis
Rain, wind, and lichen
What causes soil to form in primary succession
Wild African bees in the US can best be described as
Resource partitioning
Predators avoiding competition by being active during different times of the day is an example of
Protection, hunting, mating
Why do some organisms live in clumps?
Crucial in foodweb, indicator species
Why should we protect amphibians
time, population, line
When graphing a changing population over time problem, _____ would be on the x axis, _____ would be on the y, you would use _______ graph
Area between two biomes
Brood parasite
Allows other species to raise their offspring
Exponential Model
doesn't take limiting factors into consideration
Logistic Model
Moves closer to carrying capacity
Stable Population
moves above and below carrying capacity
Irruptive Population
explodes then crashes
Cyclic Population
aka: boom and bust
10% rule
Irregular Population
Erratic changes
predators hunt and kill prey keeping the prey pop down
prey are the food source that determine predator pop
Asexual Reproduction
(-) no exchange in genetic material
no variety
(+) can reproduce w/o partner
Sexual Reproduction
exchanging dna
(-) takes longer/ needs mate
(+) off spring protection
reproduces rapidly in favorable conditions
Survivorship Curves
show how likely and animal is to survive
Type 1 Curve Late loss
most likely to die later
Type 2 Constant Loss
prob. of dying doesn't change
ex.bird/ squirrel
Type 3 Early Loss
when prob. of dying his high
ex: sea turtles, insects, oaks

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