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Here is a quizlet for pretty much everything we need to know for the test tomorrow- Just a little review!

Multiple Alleles

3 or more alleles per trait


A change of DNA

Nitrogenous bases in RNA is made up of

Adenine (A), Uracel (U), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C)


Used to search for a specific trait using known family history


Controlled by many genes


Organic compounds- Made up of Carbon (CO2), Oxygen (O2), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N)

Units Proteins are made up of are called...

Amino Acids

Proteins make up...

Enzymes which speed up reactions

Sex determination

Woman (XX) gives an X while the man (XY) gives an X or a Y (50/50 chance)

Sex- linked traits

Traits transferred through generations found on the sex chromosomes

Sickle- Cell Anemia

Affects mostly African Americans, hemoglobin can't carry oxygen, red blood cells form a sickle shape and the carrier can show some of the symptoms


Remove for amniotic fluid, test for mutations

Anti- Codon

The opposite of a codon

Base Pairing Rules

A always pairs to T (A-T) and C always pairs to G (C-G)

Both enzymes + proteins...

Make up your phenotype


A person who has the trait but does not show it (Female)


Three nitrogenous in a row, codes for amino acids

Females are

Homozygous (XX)

Males are

Heterozygous (XY)

Sex- linked traits are usually found on the

X chromosome

The structure of DNA was discovered by

Watson and Crick

How many pairs of Autosomes (Body Cells) are there?

22 pairs

Why are males affected more than females?

Because females have tow X chromosomes, so if one is bad, they have an extra. But, men don't, so they are always affected if having the disease

How many pairs of sex chromosomes are there?

1 pair

Cystic Fibrosis

Recessive alleles, lungs fill with thick mucus

Diagnostic Tests

Amniocentesis and a karyotype


Found in the nucleus, is the code that carries the organisms traits, codes for proteins that make up these traits

What three parts are DNA composed of?

A sugar group, phosphate group, and nitrogenous

DNA Replication

Double helix untwists, DNA unzips into a replication fork, free nucleotides join the old strands, then there are two new strands and each strand has one old and one new

What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid

Down Syndrome

Most common form of mental retardation, occurs when there is an extra 21st chromosome and is a nondisjunction disorder

Environmental Factors

Have an impact on gene expression

Example of anti- codon


Example of mRNA transcription


Examples of base pairing


Examples of environmental factors

Hair color, skin color, height, weight

Examples of multiple alleles

Blood type (O, A, B, AB)

Examples of polygenic traits

Eye color, skin color, hair color

Examples of sex- linked traits

Hemophilia, Duchanne's Muscular Dystrophy, male pattern baldness, and color blindness


Started in the royal family- Found on the X chromosome, sex- linked trait, affected males more commonly than females, blood fails to clot


Picture of chromosome

Himalayan rabbits

Fur changes color based on temperature

The structure of DNA

Double helix, two (identical) sides

Two strands in a double helix are

complementary (opposite of original strands)

Incomplete dominance

Occurs when neither dominant or recessive. you get a NEW phenotype

Co- dominance

Occurs when both traits are dominant and they both show in the phenotype

Examples of co- dominance

-roan cattle (orange)
red (RR) X white (WW) = roan cow (RW = red+white)

Blood Types

O- Recessive
A- Dominant
B- Dominant
AB- Co- Dominant


The process of making an identical copy of an organism

Genetic engineering

When a set of genes is taken from one organism and transferred in to the DNA of another organism

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