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Mr. Raff Chapter Four Test- Genetics

Here is a quizlet for pretty much everything we need to know for the test tomorrow- Just a little review!
STUDY
PLAY
Multiple Alleles
3 or more alleles per trait
Mutation
A change of DNA
Nitrogenous bases in RNA is made up of
Adenine (A), Uracel (U), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C)
Pedigree
Used to search for a specific trait using known family history
Polygenic
Controlled by many genes
Proteins
Organic compounds- Made up of Carbon (CO2), Oxygen (O2), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N)
Units Proteins are made up of are called...
Amino Acids
Proteins make up...
Enzymes which speed up reactions
Sex determination
Woman (XX) gives an X while the man (XY) gives an X or a Y (50/50 chance)
Sex- linked traits
Traits transferred through generations found on the sex chromosomes
Sickle- Cell Anemia
Affects mostly African Americans, hemoglobin can't carry oxygen, red blood cells form a sickle shape and the carrier can show some of the symptoms
Amniocentesis
Remove for amniotic fluid, test for mutations
Anti- Codon
The opposite of a codon
Base Pairing Rules
A always pairs to T (A-T) and C always pairs to G (C-G)
Both enzymes + proteins...
Make up your phenotype
Carrier
A person who has the trait but does not show it (Female)
Codon
Three nitrogenous in a row, codes for amino acids
Females are
Homozygous (XX)
Males are
Heterozygous (XY)
Sex- linked traits are usually found on the
X chromosome
The structure of DNA was discovered by
Watson and Crick
How many pairs of Autosomes (Body Cells) are there?
22 pairs
Why are males affected more than females?
Because females have tow X chromosomes, so if one is bad, they have an extra. But, men don't, so they are always affected if having the disease
How many pairs of sex chromosomes are there?
1 pair
Cystic Fibrosis
Recessive alleles, lungs fill with thick mucus
Diagnostic Tests
Amniocentesis and a karyotype
DNA
Found in the nucleus, is the code that carries the organisms traits, codes for proteins that make up these traits
What three parts are DNA composed of?
A sugar group, phosphate group, and nitrogenous
DNA Replication
Double helix untwists, DNA unzips into a replication fork, free nucleotides join the old strands, then there are two new strands and each strand has one old and one new
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
Down Syndrome
Most common form of mental retardation, occurs when there is an extra 21st chromosome and is a nondisjunction disorder
Environmental Factors
Have an impact on gene expression
Example of anti- codon
AUC, UAG
Example of mRNA transcription
DNA strand: AGGGGGGGGCCCCCTA
RNA strand: UCCCCCCCCGGGGGAU
Examples of base pairing
DNA strand #1: GCCATTGGCTAC
DNA strand #2: CGGTAACCGATG
Examples of environmental factors
Hair color, skin color, height, weight
Examples of multiple alleles
Blood type (O, A, B, AB)
Examples of polygenic traits
Eye color, skin color, hair color
Examples of sex- linked traits
Hemophilia, Duchanne's Muscular Dystrophy, male pattern baldness, and color blindness
Hemophilia
Started in the royal family- Found on the X chromosome, sex- linked trait, affected males more commonly than females, blood fails to clot
Karyotype
Picture of chromosome
Himalayan rabbits
Fur changes color based on temperature
The structure of DNA
Double helix, two (identical) sides
Two strands in a double helix are
complementary (opposite of original strands)
Incomplete dominance
Occurs when neither dominant or recessive. you get a NEW phenotype
Co- dominance
Occurs when both traits are dominant and they both show in the phenotype
Examples of co- dominance
-roan cattle (orange)
red (RR) X white (WW) = roan cow (RW = red+white)
Blood Types
O- Recessive
A- Dominant
B- Dominant
AB- Co- Dominant
Cloning
The process of making an identical copy of an organism
Genetic engineering
When a set of genes is taken from one organism and transferred in to the DNA of another organism