Nutrition 251 Study Questions Exam #2 PSU

How is the chemical structure of protein different and similar to that of complex carbohydrates? (Ex. they are both long chains of building block units.) How is the chemical structure of a monosaccharide different from that of an amino acid, just in general terms? (Chpt 6 and Lesson 4)
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Protein: composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms arranged into amino acids linked in a chain
- the nitrogen group is the amino group, allowing the protein to link
Carbohydrate: composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides
- carbs are linked as many of the SAME molecules, unlike amino groups which are different
1. Mouth - chewing crushes and tears protein-containing foods and mixes them with saliva before swallowing
2. Stomach - HCl denatures protein and also activates pepsinogen to pepsin, a protease which breaks large proteins into smaller polypeptides.
-disrupts the bonds in proteins which increases surface area for the enzymes in the stomach to act
3. Pancreas - Pancreatic proteases are secreted into the duodenum
4. Small Intestine - Proteases derived from the pancreas and small intestinal cells do the final digestion of polypeptides to amino acids. Amino acids and some dipeptides and tripeptides are then absorbed across the small intestinal membrane into the circulatory system.
-absorbed by active transport, are water soluble so go to liver through the circulatory system
An amino acid is a precursor molecule because it precedes other molecules, meaning its components can be used for other molecules in the body.
4 functions:
1. Turn protein's carbon into glucose thru gluconeogenesis. Amino acid known as glucogenic afterwards.
2. Amino acid used as fuel (less of a fuel compared to fatty acids and glucose)
3. Stored as fatty acids when cal. intake is high
4. Essential A.A. turned into nonessential A.A.
-phenylalanine as a precursor to tyrosine
-Tryptophan is enzymatically converted to niacin, a B vitamin and serotonin.
1. Collagen protein vital to the framework for laying down the crystalline structures of bone and teeth; "glue" that holds cells together and basic structure of skin, blood vessels, and organs
2. In blood and fluid compartments-
-regulate fluid balance - R groups of AAs can attract water
-maintain acid-base balance - R groups have buffering capacity
-transport nutrients to cells
-function in immunity - antibodies are proteins
-are hormones - insulin and gastrin are examples
3. Proteins are enzymes - thousands of enzymes catalyze reactions in the body
4. Proteins are transporters in membranes - recognize specific molecules to transport them across a membrane
Deamination (in AAs) - the removal of the amino group (NH2) from the amino acid
Ammonia is a product of deamination. Ammonia is toxic b/c it disrupts blood's acid-base balance in excessive amounts since its a base. Liver combines ammonia with CO2 to make urea. The kidneys filter the urea out of the blood for excretion in the urine.
4 essential AAs:
-Phenylalanine -Methionine -Tryptophan -Lysine
20AAs, 9 are essential, 11 are nonessential.
The amino acid pool is the availability of all AAs in the fluid compartment of the cell. It contains essential and non-essential AAs.
The sources are the diet, the degradation of cellular proteins to AAs, and (for non-essential AAs) synthesis from other molecules.
The AA pool must be balanced to have more effective protein synthesis. If the pool is low, protein syn. is slowed.
Protein quality by:
1. Digestibility of proteins: high quality are more digestible than low quality; animal proteins > legume proteins > vegetable proteins
- complementing proteins - low quality proteins good source of protein when mixed together or mixed with animal protein
2. Amino Acid composition: depends on amounts and profile of essential AAs per gram of protein; animal protein has essential AAs in adequate amounts; plant proteins have at least 1 essential AA in low amounts
- limiting AA - the essential AA found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body - 4 likely AAs: lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan
- reference protein - a standard against which to measure the quality of other proteins
Can measure digestibility by measuring the amount of protein that is consumed (before you actually eat it) and then measuring the amount of protein excreted in feces. Depending on how much protein there is in the feces, this will tell you how much protein was digested.
Egg has the highest digestibility because it is an animal protein.
Read about nitrogen balance. Explain the "in" and "out" of nitrogen in the body.Nitrogen balance - whether or not the amount of nitrogen into the body equals the amount of nitrogen out of the body IN - Only FOOD. Almost all nitrogen is brought into the body through food consumption OUT - Feces, Urine, Hair & Skin, and Sweat Nitro + = for growing ppl, synthesizing more protein. Nitro - = for old, starving, severely injured ppl, nitrogen degrades more than synthesis nitro 0 = normal, nongrowing ppl.What amino acid is conditionally essential for a PKU person and why? Describe the protein and amino acid needs of a PKU child. What happens if an infant/child is not put on a special PKU diet? (Lesson 4, p. 193 text)conditionally essential AA: Tyrosine A PKU person= unable to efficiently metabolize phenylalanine into tyrosine, so phenylalanine can build-up in the body and damage the nervous system. A PKU child needs low levels of phenylalanine since the body cannot process it, but higher intake levels of tyrosine since it is not being produced within the body like in a normal person. A child that is not put on a special PKU diet can develop mental retardation, seizures, and behavior abnormalities.What changes would Matt need to make if he wants to become a lacto-ovo vegetarian? vegan? What foods would you recommend to Matt if he were a vegan to supply him with his protein needs? Which population group does health experts discourage the practice of vegan vegetarianism and why? Which vitamins and/or minerals could be in short supply for people who are vegetarians. (Highlight 2, Chpt 2; and Lesson 4)Lactovegetarian - people who include dairy products, but exclude meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs from their diet Lacto-ovo-vegetarian - people who include dairy products, and eggs, but exclude meat, poultry, and seafood from their diets Vegan - people who exclude all animal-derived foods Children/infants = no vegan/vegetarian diet b/c they have higher protein needs vegan/vegetarian diet= low on Vitamin B12, Iron, Zinc, Calcium and Vitamin DMatt's buddy at the gym says that he is piling in the protein like chicken and eggs because he wants to build his muscle mass. Explain to Matt's friend the misconceptions of this practice.-Consuming excess protein does not push protein synthesis -Eating large amounts will be converted to fat rather than muscleTrue or false and why? Eating extra high quality protein (above your RDA) is a superior fuel over dietary or endogenous fat for exercising, especially for competitive athletes.FALSE- athletes still need to consume endogenous fat because it is main source of fuel, if it is not consumed performance will be limitedIf you follow the MyPlate food system and eat about 2,000 kcalories per day, then what percent of your RDA for protein are you consuming?-You would be consuming 200% of protein RDA -This is common/normal for most people and is okay to consume this amountThree protein subgroups? Why are they important?Seafood, meat/poultry/eggs, and nuts/seeds/soy Provides variety of essential amino acidsShort chain fatty acid vs. MediumCFA vs. LongCFAShort chain - less than 6 carbons - occur in small amount in foods Medium chain - 6-10 carbons - occur in small amount in foods Long chain - 12-24 carbons - 18-carbon chains most common in our food - in meats, fish, and vegetable oilssaturated vs. monounsaturated vs. polyunsaturatedSaturated - fatty acids with ONLY single bonds in their structure (C atoms saturated with H atoms) Monounsaturated - fatty acids with one double bond in their structure Polyunsaturated - fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds in their structurestearic acid vs. oleic acidStearic acid - saturated fatty acid with 18 carbons Oleic acid - monounsaturated fatty acid with 18 carbonsliquid oils vs. solid fatsLiquid - (at room temp) - triglycerides containing unsaturated fatty acids Solid - (at room temp) - triglycerides rich in saturated fatty acids (50% or more) - structure of saturated fatty acid allows molecules to stack and pack perfectlylinolenic vs. DHA and EPALinolenic acid - polyunsaturated fatty acid - essential FA - needed in the diet because body can't process them on its own DHA and EPA - long-chain omega-3 fatty acid - These can be made in body cells from linolenic acid but are also found preformed in fish, shellfish, sea algae and human breast milk - either pre-formed in the diet or made from linolenic acidcis fatty acids vs. trans fatty acidsCis: Molecule on the same side Trans: molecule shift on different sidehydrogenation i.e. vegetable oils vs. tub margarines vs. stick margarineHydrogenation: removing double bonds and adding hydrogen Vegetable oil turns into margarine thru hydrogenation Tub marg healthier than stick marg b/c lower in sat and trans fat levelprostaglandins vs. essential fatty acidsLinoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids which are precursors to prostaglandinstropical oils (palm and coconut) vs. corn oilTropical oil: High in saturated fats Corn oil: high in unsaturated fatsphospholipid vs. triglyceridephospholipid and triglyceride are same except in phospholipid, phosphorylated alcohol replaces one fatty acid chain, making it hydrophobic and hydrophillic.cholesterol vs. a fatty acidcholesterol: in animals only fatty acid: in all orgDo trans fatty acids occur naturally in foods?Yes, in animal foods but in small amounts so it is impossible to remove all trans-fatty acids from your dietWhich oils are particularly rich in monounsaturated fatty acids?Canola oils and olive oilDescribe in words the structures of linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Why are they called omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids? Make note of where the first double bonds occur in their structure.-Linolenic= 18 Carbon, polyunsaturated fatty acids, called omega 3 because the first double bond occurs after the 3rd carbon -Linoleic= 18 carbon Polyunsaturated fatty acids, called omega 6 because first double bond occurs after the 6th carbonHow much of the essential fatty acids do we need in our diet and why?Answer this in terms of tablespoons of vegetable oils. We get plenty of ____________ in our diet, but we could probably do better at getting __________ into our diet. Fill in the blanks with either linoleic or linolenic acid. List rich food sources of these 2 fatty acids.-We need 2-3 tablespoons of vegetable oils per day, we need these in our diet because the body cannot make them on its own -We get plenty of LINOLEIC but could do better with LINOLENIC -Sources of linoleic= vegetable oils (corn, sunflower, soy bean, cotton seed, nuts, poultry) -Sources of linolenic= oils (flax seed, canola, walnut, wheat germ, soy bean, nuts, seeds, vegetables)What are the roles of EPA, DHA and their corresponding prostaglandins in reducing risk of heart disease? Are EPA and DHA essential nutrients; why or why not? EPA and DHA are made from _________ but are called long chain omega 3 fatty acids because their carbon chain lengths are _______. What is the richest food source of EPA and DHA found in the US diet? What is an eicosanoid?-Role of EPA/DHA in heart disease- help with decreasing blood clots and inflammation -EPA/DHA are both synthesized from linolenic making them essential nutrients -Made from LINOLENIC acids------carbon chain lengths are 20 and 22 -Richest source- fatty fish -Eicosanoid: a group of molecules that have hormone like activities, act in same cells they are produced inDescribe a typical phospholipid and list phospholipids' functions in the body.Phospholipids resemble triglycerides expect that a phosphorylated alcohol replaces one fatty acid chain. This changes the molecule to being partially hydrophobic and partially hydrophilic. Functions: -Emulsifiers - help water soluble and water insoluble molecules mix -Naturally arrange themselves into lipid bilayersIs cholesterol an essential nutrient? Discuss why or why not? What kinds of foods contain cholesterol? Do the Activity on page 7 (Sterols: Cholesterol) in Lesson 5 to reinforce cholesterol content in food.-Cholesterol is NOT an essential nutrient because the body can make it itself in the liver -Only animal foods contain cholesterolList the functions of cholesterol. Is cholesterol part of cell membranes? Describe how the body gets rid of cholesterol.Functions: 1) precursor to bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, vitamin D 2) Is a part of cell membranes Yes, it is part of the cell membranes The body gets rid of cholesterol only through excretion in the feces either as plain cholesterol or in bile salts that are derived from cholesterolWhat is the function of bile? Outline the path of bile through the body from liver to feces (and to liver again?). What hormone stimulates the secretion of bile into the duodenum?Main function of bile is to emulsify fat! Liver makes bile - stored in gallbladder until it is needed When needed - gallbladder secreted bile into the small intestines in the duodenum Bile acids in bile pair up with an amino acid - turns it into an emulsifier Emulsifier can now be used to draw fat molecules into surrounding watery fluids - fats then fully digested by lipase enzymes 2 possible routes after: -reabsorbed by the small intestines and recycled -can be trapped in some of the dietary fibers in the large intestine and can be excreted in feces Cholecystokinin (referred to as CCK) hormone signals the secretion of bile from the gallbladder to the duodenum.Where are micelles located? How are they formed? What is the role of pancreatic lipase? Describe how fat is absorbed from the lumen and then into the small intestinal cell.Micelles are tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion; most contain bile salts and the products of lipid digestion, including fatty acids, monoglycerides, and cholesterol They are located in the small intestines. Larger molecules (monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids) are emulsified by bile, which form into the complexes known as micelles. The formation of micelles makes them soluble in the watery environment of the intestines, allowing them to come into contact with lipases. In the lumen, lipases break down triglycerides to free fatty acids and monoglycerides (these leave the micelles). One fatty acid is cleaved off the phospholipid. Once inside the intestinal cells, monoglycerides and free fatty acids reform into triglycerides by enzymes. Phospholipids are reformed also.What is the major form of fat in the diet? Trace what happens to fat as it enters the small intestine and how it gets through the intestinal wall by summarizing questions 10 and 11? Where are chylomicrons made and what are their path to the bloodstream? What is their primary function. Describe a generic lipoprotein. Compare and contrast micelles with chylomicrons. (Lesson 5 and Chapt 5)Long-chain fatty acids are the major form a fat in the diet. Next question done in the above 2 answers. No need to re-summarize. Chylomicrons - the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body -they are made within the intestinal cells; cells then release the chylomicrons into the lymphatic system -then glide through the lymph system until they reach the point of entry into the bloodstream at the thoracic duct near the heart Primary function - transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body Lipoprotein - clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vesicles for lipids in the lymph and blood Micelle vs Chylomicron - both carry fat molecules, but micelle doesn't transport, just stores until lipase breaks it down to absorb into the intestines; chylomicrons transport lipid molecules all over the blood and travel through lymph and blood systems (micelles don't do this)Where are VLDL's made and where do the triglycerides come from that are in VLDL's? Now outline the major differences and similarities (function and where made) between chylomicrons, VLDL's, HDL's, LDL's? (See details in Chpt 5)VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) - the type of lipoprotein made primarily by liver cells to transport lipids to various tissues in the body; composed primarily of triglycerides -made in the liver -triglycerides come from lipids made in liver and from chylomicron remnants HDL (high-density lipoproteins) - the type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells; composed primarily of protein -remove cholesterol from the cells and carry it back to the liver for recycling or disposal -made in the liver -HEALTHY LDL (low-density lipoproteins) - the type of lipoprotein derived from VLDLs as triglycerides are removed and broken down; composed primarily of cholesterol -circulate throughout the body making their contents available to the cells of all tissues -LESS HEALTHYTrue or false and why? Eating a lot of beef raises blood LDL's because beef contains a lot of LDL's.False - doesn't contain LDLs but contains components that the body uses to create LDLsWhere is lipoprotein lipase located in the body and what is its function? (HINT: It is not in the intestinal lumen.) (Chpt 5, page 146) Compare its function to pancreatic lipase.Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is located in the adipose cells -hydrolyzes triglycerides from the lipoproteins, releasing fatty acids, diglycerides, and monoglycerides into the adipose cells.Briefly describe the progression in an artery to atherosclerosis. (Lesson 5 and Chpt 18)Atherosclerosis results from when fibrous plaque builds up inside the artery walls. Plaque consists of lipids, including cholesterol, smooth muscle cells, calcium, and other material forming a stiff, thickened area that can occlude arteries. Platelets, small cells important for blood clotting, often adhere to the region, increasing thickening and possibly into a complete blockage.List the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Cigarette Smoking - TOP REASON Hypertension (high blood pressure) Diabetes Obesity Hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol) Oxidized LDL (reactions of LDL-cholesterol with oxygen) High cholesterol/ high fatty acid diets High epinephrine (stress)Acetyl CoAA 2-carbon compund (acetate, or acetic acid) to which a molecule of CoA is attached CoA - coenzyme A; the coenzyme derived from the B vitamin pantothenic acid and central to energy metabolismAerobicrequiring oxygenAnaerobicnot requiring oxygenAnabolismreactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones; anabolic reactions require energyCatabolismreactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones; catabolic reactions release energyCoenzymecomplex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity; many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structuresElectron Transport Chainthe final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP; also called the respiratory chainFatty acid oxidationthe metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to Acetyl CoA; also called beta oxidationGlucogenic amino acidsamino acids that can make glucose via either pyruvate or TCA cycle intermediatesGluconeogenesisthe making of glucose from a noncarbohydrate source such as amino acids or glycerolGlycolysisthe metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate; glycolysis does NOT require oxygen (anaerobic)Ketogenic amino acidsamino acids that are degraded to Acetyl CoAKetones (ketone bodies)compounds produced during incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cellsKetosisan undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urineMetabolismthe sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells; energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from foodOxaloacetatea carbohydrate intermediate of the TCA cyclePyruvatea 3-carbon compound that plays a key role in energy metabolismTCA Cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle)a series of metabolic reactions that break down molecules of Acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms; also called the citric acid cycle or the Kreb's cycle after the biochemist who elucidated its reactionsWhy does fat provide more energy (kcal) per gram than carbohydrate, protein and alcohol? (Lesson 6 and Chpt 7)Fat provides more energy per gram because there are more C-H bonds within a fat molecule than in a carb, protein, or alcohol molecule. This is because energy is released from breaking of the C-H bondsHow many carbons are there in the following molecules: glucose, glycerol, long chain fatty acids, ethanol, pyruvate, and oxaloacetate? How many carbons in acetyl CoA are from glucose?Glucose: 6 carbons Glycerol: 3 carbons Long Chain FAs: even number of carbons, usually 16 or 18 Ethanol: 2 carbons Pyruvate: 3 carbons Oxaloacetate: 4 carbons Believe there are no carbons in Acetyl CoA that are from glucose.What are the three basic processes of energy metabolism? Briefly describe each step.1) Conversion to acetyl COA (a two carbon molecule to which all energy yielding nutrients converge to first when being metabolized) **for exam know which convert directly to acetyl COA Convert directly- Converted to pyruvate first, then acetyl COA- 2) Acetyl COA enters the TCA cycle (when energy is needed, the body sends acetyl COA through a set of reactions in cycle) 3) Energized H+ carried by NAD and FAD enters the electron transport chain 1. Final step is when energy is released from hydrogen carried by NAD and FAD 2. ATP is synthesized to complete the processCan fatty acids from body adipose tissue produce glucose for the blood when blood glucose is very low? Why or why not?NO, they cannot. Most fatty acids are composed of triglycerides, which only contain one small molecule of glycerol that can be used to make glucose. However, that only uses 3 of the 50 or so carbons that are in a triglyceride. This means that about 95% of that triglyceride cannot be used to make glucose.What happens to the nitrogen part of the amino acid if the carbon part is for blood glucose?The nitrogen portion of the AA is used to make non-essential AAs and other nitrogen-containing compounds (ammonia).When metabolizing Matt's cola drink, would it be converted to pyruvate before entering the TCA cycle?Depends on where the source is coming from. If the Acetyl CoA that enters the TCA cycle is coming from glucose, then yes. Glucose is always made to pyruvate first. However if it is coming from fatty acids then no. Fatty acids are directly broken down to form Acetyl CoA.When metabolizing the margarine, would it be converted to pyruvate before entering the TCA cycle?Margarine is fat, so glycerol portion would convert to pyruvate first Fatty acids would convert to acetyl COA directlyWhat are the end products of metabolism?ATP and Water!Under what conditions will the protein from Matt's hamburger be converted to body fat? What about the carbohydrates in Matt's diet; can they ever be converted to body fat? And now consider the fat in Matt's diet; can it ever be converted to body fat?When body has adequate ATP, extra acetly COA cannot enter the TCA cycle, therefore any extra is converted to fatty acids and combines with glycerol to form triglycerides and store in adipose cells True for excess protein/carbs/alcohol/fatMatt states he wants to eat more during the mid-afternoon because he knows food is energy and he feels he needs some extra pep. Explain if this is likely to work for Matt.Body keeps small amount of ATP, enough to meet needs for just 5-10 seconds, thus the body constantly makes ATP and adjusts to varying needs Ex: If you start exercising, you produce more ATP Body monitors this need by ratio of ATP to ADP When body has more ATP than ADP- body stops enzymes that breakdown glucose to slow ATP production When body has more ADP than ATP- reverse happens, ATP production occursIf Matt went on a starvation regiment, what would be his source of glucose for the first day? Subsequent days?First day- brain, nervous, red blood uses stored glucose (glycogen is initial source) -Subsequent days= ketone bodies are used -In emergency situations brain, nervous cells, etc can use ketonesSome amino acids, like alanine, are glucogenic. What does this mean? When is it important for glucogenic amino acids to be metabolized to glucose? Not all amino acid are glucogenic. What are the others?-2 TYPES OF AMINO ACIDS Glucogenic= converted to pyruvate first, then to acetyl COA Ketogenic= converted straight to acetyl COA -Important to have glucogenic if glucose is needed so we have enough energy, because glucogenic amino acids CAN be converted from pyruvate back to glucose, but ketogenic amino acids CANNOT be converted back to glucoseWhat is oxaloacetate (OAA)? What does it mean that you need some carbohydrate to fuel the burning of fat?-OAA is 4 carbon molecule formed during TCA cycle by combining 2 Carbon acetyl COA -TCA cycle does not keep turning without being replenished with OAA Ex- OAA is like igniting an engine, enzyme adds a carbon to pyruvate to make this 4 carbon molecule -Always need some glucose being converted to pyruvate and then OAA to keep burning of acetyl COA goingSome cells in the body, e.g. brain cells, can adapt and use ketones for energy during starvation. This is the good news for survival. What is the bad news about ketone production?-Ketosis= ketones are spilling into blood and urine -Prolonged ketosis causes nausea, fatigue, foul breath, low blood pressure, inflamed joints. In pregnant women ketosis can cause fetal problems and/or still birth.Why is it that in untreated diabetes the urine and breath can smell slightly sweet, sort of like acetone? Could the same thing happen in starvation? Could the same thing happen with an extremely low carbohydrate diet? Explain.-In starvation YES it can happen -Ketosis helps suppress appetite, but also increases fluid loss as the body tries to get rid of ketones, thus the initial weight loss is due to fluid loss and can lead to dehydration -In untreated diabetes- too much glucose means they can't use it and cells are starving, ketosis can form in this situation as wellWhy do women absorb more ethanol than men? What tissue(s) metabolizes ethanol? When ethanol is oxidized in the cell it produces ___________ which then may enter the TCA cycle or, in large quantities, synthesize fatty acids. Explain why ethanol is readily converted to fat in the liver rather than oxidized to ATP. How long does it take the average person to metabolize one drink?-Women have less alcohol dehydrogenesis enzyme -Metabolized in liver; When ethanol is oxidized in the cell is produces acetyl COA -Ethanol converted to fat because alcohol is absorbed from the GI tract but cannot be stored, body must oxidize it to get rid of it. Can only be oxidized in the liver. -It takes 1 hour to metabolize one drink.How to calculate RDA for proteinWeight/2.2 x0.8