M/J Ch 2 Exploring the Americas

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Terms in this set (...)

What are three reasons for explorers making Voyages of Exploration?
Route to the Indies, Riches, Bring Christianity. Also known as God, gold, and glory.
Technology
The use of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems
What new technology did explorers use?
Better Ships, Better Maps, and Compass and Astrolabe
Compass
Navigation Aid that showed the direction in which a person or vessel is traveling
Strait
A narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water
Circumnavigation
sailing completely around something, such as the world
Queen Isabella And King Ferdinand
Catholic Queen and King of Spain wanted Native Americans to become Christians and provide laborer building and mining.
Christopher Columbus
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journey's until the time of his death in 1503.
Amerigo Vespucci
A mapmaker and explorer who said that America was a new continent, so America was named after him.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama.
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. Was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), completed the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Conquistadors
Spanish explorers who were given the right to explore and create settlements in the Americas in return they gave Spain 1/5 of any treasure they found.
Aztec Empire
Spanned From Mexico to Central America; practiced human sacrifice, and enslaved other Native Americans. Conquered by Hernan Cortes and the Spanish.
Inca Empire
Empire in Peru. Conquered by Francisco Pizarro, who began an empire for the Spanish in 1535
How were the Spanish Conquistadors able to defeat the Native American Empires?
The Spanish had, guns, cannons, horses, and ferocious dogs. Also disease wiped out Native populations because they had no immunity to European diseases. Finally they also had native help of those who wanted to overthrow their rulers.
Immunity
Resistance to disease
Hernan Cortes
Conquered the Aztec empire
Francisco Pizarro
Conquered the Inca empire
Ponce De Leon
Spanish explorer searching for the fountain of youth. Landed on Florida coast 1513, called it La Florida because of Easter "Pascua Florida" Appointed Governor of Florida. Killed by Calusa Indians
Panfilo de Narvaez
Tried to start Spanish colony in Tampa Bay area driven away by Indians
Why did France want to control Florida?
It was a key location to capture Spanish treasure ships coming from Central America.
Jean Ribault
French Explorer came to Florida sailing to St Johns river near Jacksonville claiming Florida for Spain. Ft Caroline was later built along river.
Pedro Menedez de Aviles
Ordered by Spanish King to establish colony in Florida and drive out French. Established colony of St Augustine, and captured Ft Caroline. Ending French attempts to control Florida
St Augustine
First permanent Spanish settlement in Florida
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
First landed in Florida but left after coming across hostile Indians. Sailed along the coast in rafts trying to reach Mexico but landed off the coast of Texas, on Galveston Island. Among the first Europeans to explore Texas. Lived among the native Americans in Texas and Northern Mexico. After exploring, went to Mexico and told Spanish leaders the story of the cities of gold
Seven Cities of Cibola
Native American tale of the Seven Cities of Gold
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Searching for 7 cities of gold went thru present day northern Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico. Traveled to Colorado river and Kansas, found wind swept plains and "shaggy" cows.
According to Spanish law what were the three kinds of settlements?
Pueblos, Missions, Presidios
Pueblo
A town and center of trade in Spanish America
Mission
A Spanish Community for the religious conversion and training of Native Americans
Presidio
A Fort in Spanish America
The Spanish Class System
Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos,, Native Americans, Slaves
Bartolome de las Casas
Condemned the Cruel Treatment of Native Americans.
Why did Spain explore and colonize the American Southwest?
To avoid the threats of other European nations to its Southwest Empire Spain settled New Mexico, Arizona, claimed land around Mississippi river, built forts in Texas.
Reformation
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches. Did not recognize the authority of the Pope.
Protestantism
The second branch of Christianity formed in protest to corruption in the Catholic Church
Armada
A fleet of War Ships
Northwest Passage
A direct water route through the Americas to Asia
Tenant Farmer
Settler who paid the landowner an annual rent and worked for that lord for a fixed number of days that year.
How did French and Dutch settlement compare to the Spanish colonies?
French First came for resources, then trade, then missionaries followed. They got along well with indians. The Dutch established Dutch West Indies Company to trade between Americas and Africa founded New Amsterdam,
Henry Hudson
An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherland. He also had the Hudson Bay named for him
Robert Cavalier La Salle (1618)
French explorer followed Mississippi all the way to Gulf of Mexico, claimed it for France called it Louisiana
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Spanish navy entered the English Channel. English fought back and inflicted damage on Spanish ships. Showdown in 1588 that arose a "Protestant Wind" scattering the Spanish. Defeated Armada ended Spanish control of the Sea.
Manhattan
Bought from Manhattoes Indians for 60 Dutch Guilders about $24 of goods.
Martin Luther
German priest who rejected the teachings of the Catholic Church. His beliefs led to the Reformation Movement.
Armada
Spanish war fleet of ships
Who overthrew the Spanish Armada?
English
Why did the French want to settle in North America?
They were interested in its natural resources and trading with the natives for fur and fish.
Why did the Dutch want to settle in North America?
Wanted to find a shorter route to Asia and for better farmland.
Why did the English want to settle in North America?
To avoid religious persecution in their own country.
Who settled in New Amsterdam?
Dutch
Who settled in New Orleans?
French
Who claimed the land around the St. Lawrence river?
French
How did the Spanish respond to the French presence in Florida?
The king ordered Menendez to set up a colony and drive them out.
Why did Spain finance Columbus's voyage?
He promised to spread Christianity and find a shorter route to Asia which would have brought back wealth for Spain.
Plantation
Very large farm

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