Chaper 3 (Cells)

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Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane

semipermeable...selective about what can enter or leave the cell...allow lipid soluble to go through...made up of protein,phospholipids


gel-like substance found inside the cell but out side the nucleus. surrounds and supports organelles;medium through which nutrients and waste move


Control center of the cell...contains genetic information.DNA ..large pores, allow free movement of protien to ATP

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

transports material through the cytoplasm


tiny, slipper-shaped organells. convert energy in nutrients to ATP (power plant of cell)

golgi apparatus

packages protein in membrane;puts the finishing touches on protein


sites of protein synthesis


"housekeeing" within the cell contains ensymes


provides for intracellular shape and support


help seperate the chromosomes during mitosis...rod shaped. cellular reproduction


create movement over the cell


create movement of cell..ex. allow the sperm to swim)


basic unit of all living things. structure and function closely related.

Nucleus membrane

double layered, surrounds the nucleus..contains large pores that allow free movement of certain substances(genetic material), to come out when it's time for replication. between the nucleus and the cytoplasm,,


substance that fills the nucleus. contas two other structures 1 nucleolus (little nucleus), and chromatin, which are threadlike structures that contain genes


digestive organelles that "clean house" within the cell

smooth endoplamic reticulum


rough endoplasmic reticulum

has protein, green specks on picture


moving from high to low concentration...reaching equilibrium coloring in glass...area around the die, diffusing, making all the water, equal pink

facilitated diffusion

a helper molecule within the membrane helps with movement of


adenosine triphosphate (energy storing, moving molecule)


small organs within a cell


deoxyribonucleic acid


only applys to water, water enters the semipermeable membrane, Water passes from less concentrated to more concentrated..reaching a state of equilibrium.

4 Passive transport mechanisms

Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Osmosis, Filtration

3 Active transport mechanisms

Active transport pumps ,Endocytosis ,Exocytosis

Active transport pumps

ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM movement of a substance uphill, from low to high concentration Requires input of energy (ATP)


ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM taking in or ingestion of substances by the cell membrane


cellular eating


cellular drinking


ACTIVE T RANSPORT MECHANISM cellular waste, out of the cell protein, debris


Iso meaning same...Same as intracellular fluid RBC no movement of water (Normal Saline)


(plain water) water moves into RBC, causing the RBC to burst Water is more dilute than RBC so...water moves into RBC, BURST OSMOSIS ONLY WATER MOVES


(concentrated solution) RBC shrinks because the SOLUTION is more concentrated than the RBC so the water from the RBC goes to the solution (equilibrium) and the RBC Shrinks


the ability of a solution to affect the volume and pressure within a cell


unlike diffusin and osmosis, water and dissolved substances cross the membrane is response to defferences in PRESSURE, pressure PUSHES substance accross the membrane

Cell Division same as

Cell Reproduction


occurs only with sex cells


4 phases...prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. exact replica being produced, same DNA ..Same chromosomes invoved in bodily repair and growth..ex..cut healing. .splitting of one mother cell into two IDENTICAL ("daughter cells)


G1, S,G2,M

Phase G1

cell carries on duties,begins to make DNA and other substance necessary for cell division

Phase S

cell duplicates its chromosomes, making enough DNA for 2 cells

Phase G2

final preparatory phase for cell division (mitosis)...synthesis of enzymes and protein needed for misosis....then enters Mitotic (M) phase.

stem cells

have the ability to differentiate..Embryonic, Adult and Placenta/umbilical...some go to the nerves to become nerve cells, some go to bones to become bone cells etc.


increase production of alypical cells


benign prostatic hyperplasia


not recurrant


ability to re-occur and metastisize, causing death


beyond change, growth


cells shrink due to hypertonic. water from cell goes into concentrated solution to become equal


cells burst due to hypotonic, dog is water....

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