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51 terms

Chaper 3 (Cells)

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Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane
semipermeable...selective about what can enter or leave the cell...allow lipid soluble to go through...made up of protein,phospholipids
cytoplasm
gel-like substance found inside the cell but out side the nucleus. surrounds and supports organelles;medium through which nutrients and waste move
nucleus
Control center of the cell...contains genetic information.DNA ..large pores, allow free movement of protien to ATP
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
transports material through the cytoplasm
mitochondria
tiny, slipper-shaped organells. convert energy in nutrients to ATP (power plant of cell)
golgi apparatus
packages protein in membrane;puts the finishing touches on protein
ribosomes
sites of protein synthesis
lysosomes
"housekeeing" within the cell contains ensymes
cytoskeleton
provides for intracellular shape and support
centrioles
help seperate the chromosomes during mitosis...rod shaped. cellular reproduction
cilia
create movement over the cell
flagella
create movement of cell..ex. allow the sperm to swim)
Cell
basic unit of all living things. structure and function closely related.
Nucleus membrane
double layered, surrounds the nucleus..contains large pores that allow free movement of certain substances(genetic material), to come out when it's time for replication. between the nucleus and the cytoplasm,,
nucleoplasm
substance that fills the nucleus. contas two other structures 1 nucleolus (little nucleus), and chromatin, which are threadlike structures that contain genes
lysosomes
digestive organelles that "clean house" within the cell
smooth endoplamic reticulum
steroids
rough endoplasmic reticulum
has protein, green specks on picture
Diffusion
moving from high to low concentration...reaching equilibrium ex..food coloring in glass...area around the die, diffusing, making all the water, equal pink
facilitated diffusion
a helper molecule within the membrane helps with movement of
ATP
adenosine triphosphate (energy storing, moving molecule)
organelles
small organs within a cell
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
Osmosis
only applys to water, water enters the semipermeable membrane, Water passes from less concentrated to more concentrated..reaching a state of equilibrium.
4 Passive transport mechanisms
Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Osmosis, Filtration
3 Active transport mechanisms
Active transport pumps ,Endocytosis ,Exocytosis
Active transport pumps
ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM movement of a substance uphill, from low to high concentration Requires input of energy (ATP)
Endocytosis
ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM taking in or ingestion of substances by the cell membrane
Phagocytosis
cellular eating
Pinocytosis
cellular drinking
exocytosis
ACTIVE T RANSPORT MECHANISM cellular waste, out of the cell protein, debris
Isotonic
Iso meaning same...Same as intracellular fluid RBC no movement of water (Normal Saline)
hypotonic
(plain water) water moves into RBC, causing the RBC to burst Water is more dilute than RBC so...water moves into RBC, BURST OSMOSIS ONLY WATER MOVES
hypertonic
(concentrated solution) RBC shrinks because the SOLUTION is more concentrated than the RBC so the water from the RBC goes to the solution (equilibrium) and the RBC Shrinks
tonicity
the ability of a solution to affect the volume and pressure within a cell
filtration
unlike diffusin and osmosis, water and dissolved substances cross the membrane is response to defferences in PRESSURE, pressure PUSHES substance accross the membrane
Cell Division same as
Cell Reproduction
meiosis
occurs only with sex cells
mitosis
4 phases...prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. exact replica being produced, same DNA ..Same chromosomes invoved in bodily repair and growth..ex..cut healing. .splitting of one mother cell into two IDENTICAL ("daughter cells)
Interphase
G1, S,G2,M
Phase G1
cell carries on duties,begins to make DNA and other substance necessary for cell division
Phase S
cell duplicates its chromosomes, making enough DNA for 2 cells
Phase G2
final preparatory phase for cell division (mitosis)...synthesis of enzymes and protein needed for misosis....then enters Mitotic (M) phase.
stem cells
have the ability to differentiate..Embryonic, Adult and Placenta/umbilical...some go to the nerves to become nerve cells, some go to bones to become bone cells etc.
cancer
increase production of alypical cells
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia
benign
not recurrant
malignant
ability to re-occur and metastisize, causing death
meteplasia
beyond change, growth
crenation
cells shrink due to hypertonic. water from cell goes into concentrated solution to become equal
hemolysis
cells burst due to hypotonic, ex.hot dog is water....