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183 terms

9th grade science midterm

STUDY
PLAY
biology
study of living things
chemistry
study of the compostition of matter
matter
anything that takes up space
mass
amount of matter in an object
volume
amount of space taken up by an object
density
amount of matter per unit volume
weight
the measurement of gravity
energy
the capacity for doing work or causing change
atom
the basic unit of matter
element
a substance the cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
solid
matter with a definite shape and a definite volume
gas
matter with no definite shape or volume
liquid
matter with a definite volume but no definite shape
physical
a change in the size, shape, or state of matter
chemical
a change that alters the composition of matter
kinetic
energy in motion
potential
stored energy
periodic table
table of elements
molecule
the smallest particle of a compound that has the properties of that compound
mixture
two or more substances physically combined
compound
two or more elements chemically combined
nucleus
central part of an atom
proton
postively charged particles of an atom.
electron
negatively charged particles of an atom
neutron
paricles of an atom with no charge
atomic number
the number of protons
atomic weight
the sum of masses of protons and neutrons
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
chemical activity
determined by the number and arrangement of electrons
chemical bonds
forces that hold atoms together
homogenous
matter that is the same throughout (evenly distributed)
heterogenous
matter that is not the same throughout (not evenly distributed)
ionic bond
bonds that result from the transfer of electrons
covalent
bonds that result from the sharing of electrons
ion
positively or negatively charged atoms
vaporization
liquid to gas
melting
solid to a liquid
freezing
liquid t a solid
condensation
gas to a liquid
sublimination
solid directly to a gas
properties
characteristics of matter
solution
a homogenous mixture
solvent
the dissolving medium
solute
the substance that gets dissolved
miscible
liquids that can form a solution
immiscible
liquids that cannot form solutions
colloid
a mixture in which the particles can be seen but don't settle out.
suspention
a mixture in which the particles can been seen and do settle out
saturated
a solution which holds as much soluteas it can
super saturated
a solution which holds more solute than it normally can at that temperature
balance
instrument used to measure mass
graduated cylinder
instrument used to measure volume
scale
instrument used to measure weight
gram
metric unit used to measure mass
liter
metric unit used to measure liquid volume
meter
metric unit used to measure distance
grams per liter
metric unit used to measure density
odor
the general property of matter observed by smelling
ductility
the special property of matter that allows metal to be drawn out into thin wires
conductivity
the ability of some types of matter to transmit heat or electricty
malleability
the ability of most metals to be hammeredor rolled into thin sheets
elasticty
the ability of some meterials to return to their original shape after being streched
solubility
the ability of some forms of matter to be dissolved
temperature
the measurement of the average kinetic energy of molecules
heat energy
the amount of kinetic energy of molecules
freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid
melting point
the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
organic
substances that contain carbon
inorganic
substances that do not contain carbon
sublimination +
change in state, solid-gas
freezing -
change in state, liquid-solid
melting +
change in state, solid-liquid
sublimination +
change in state, gas-solid
vaporization +
change in state, liquid-gas
condensation -
change in state, gas-liquid
gama, x-ray, ultraviolet, visable light, infrared, radiowaves
the order of the electromagnetic spectrum (ER)
212
Boiling point (F)
32
freezing point (F)
100
boiling point (C)
0
freezing point (C)
373
boiling point (K)
273
freezing point (K)
kelvin
temperature scale used by scientists
convection
occurs in fluids
conduction
occurs in solids liquids and gases
conduction
molecules have to collide
convection
density differences
radiation
no molecules required
radiation
transfer of energy by waves
transmitted
(passes through) transparent, translucent
reflected
(bound off) light, shiny, smooth
absorbed
(changed to heat) dark, dull, rough, opague
conduction
heat energy that is passed directly from one molecule to another as they collide
radiation
transfers energy through empty space
convection
heat is transfered by materials moving from one place to another.
conductor
a material that allows heat to travel through it easily
insulator
a material that does not allow heat to travel though it easily
electromagnetic radiation
energy that travels through space in the form of waves
absolute zero
(0 degrees K) measure of the energy of motion of molecules
radiation
form of energy sent out by the sun
photosphere
source of sun's visable light
corona
thin gases making up the outer most portion of the sun
prominences
streams of gases arching from the sun's surface
solar flares
sudden eruptions of the sun's surface
aurura borealis
northern lights
fusion
joining together of atomic nuclei
nebulae
clouds of gases and dust in space
nova
a varible star witch suddenly becomes very bright
apparent magnitude
brightness of a star as it appears from earth
main sequence
a pattern found in plotting magnitude versus temperature of stars
quasar
very distant, bright objects discovered by radio telescopes
spectrograph
an instrument that seperates light into individual wavelenghs
doppler effect
the spreading out or crowding together of waves due to motion of the source
absolute magnitude
true brightnness of stars
astronomy
study of the universe
constellation
group of stars that form patterns
galaxy
a system of billions of stars, cosmic dust, and gases held together by gravitation
nebula
a cloud of dust and gases in space
magnitude
brightness of a star
luminous
the ability to produce its own light
186,000 mi/s
speed of light
light year
term for the distance light travels in a year
milky way
the name of our galaxy
spiral
our galaxy's type
andormada
nearest neighboring spiral galaxy
sol
the name of our sun
dwarf
size of our sun (general classification)
yellow
color of our sun
865,000 mi
diameter of our sun (miles)
93 million mi
distance to our sun (miles)
nuclear fusion
thermal nuclear reaction occuring on the sun
plasma
4th state of matter in stars
refraction
optical telescopes that use lenses
reflection
optical telescopes that use mirrors
ptomey
considered earth to be center of the universe
copernicus
consider the sun as the center of our solar system
super nova
an explosion connected with the last stages of a neutron star
variable stars
stars that change their brightness within a cycle
polaris
a star found very close to the celestial north pole
double
two stars that appear as one to the naked eye, but show up as two through a telescope
globular
large group of stars packed into a sperical region of space
Big Bang
widely accepted theory as to the origin of the universe
binary
double that revole around a single point
paralax
apparent shift in an object's postion when viewed from two different locations
open star clusters
groups of stars that are relatively close to each other and move through space together as a system
celestial north pole
an imaginary point in our evening sky which all stars seem to revolve
gravity
the force of mutual attraction between objects
local group
our galaxy and 28 others
2,160 mi
diameter of the moon (1/4th of earth's)
250,000 mi
moon's distance from the earth
+212 F to -240 F
temperature range on the moon
elliptical
shape of the moon's orbit
counterclockwise
direction of the moon's orbit around the sun
perigee
point in moon's orbit closest to the earth
apogee
point in the moon's orbit farthest from the earth
27 1/3 days
moon's period of revolution
27 1/3 day
moon's period of rotation
29 1/2 days
the time it takes from new to new moon
1/6th
moon's surface gravity compared to earth
moon phases
lite portion of the moon's surface as viewed from earth
waxing
from new moon to full moon
waning
from full moon to new moon
earth shine
causes dark portion of moon in cresent phases to be faintly visible
umbra
complete dark inner part of shadow
penumbra
partial shadow outer part
maria
relatively smooth areas on the moon's surface appear darker
craters
circular depressions, with low sloping walls
lunar rilles
winding valley- like depression
rays
bright streaks radiating from craters
hd direct tides
tidal bulge facing the moon
hi indirect tides
tidal bulge facing away from the moon
365 1/3 days
earth's period of revolution
1 AU
earth's average distance from the sun
inclination
another term for earth's tilt on axis
vernal equinox
March 20th or 21st
summer solstice
June 21st or 22nd
autumal equinox
Sept 22nd or 23rd
winter solstice
Dec 21st or 22nd
equinox
name given to dates when sun's direct rays fall on the equator
solstice
name given dates when sun is at it's northernmost or southernmost position
solar eclipse
occurance caused by the moon being between the sun and earth and casting it's shadow on earth (dangerous to view)
lunar eclipse
occurance caused by the earth coming between the sun and the moon and casting it's shadow on the moon ( safe to view)