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Terms in this set (37)
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
Agriculture is like ordering a package because you prepare everything and all you have to do is wait to get the "package."
reproduction without sex. In this form of reproduction, a single organism or cell makes a copy of itself. The genes of the original and its copy will be the same, except for rare mutations. They are clones.
Asexual reproduction is like spliting an orange in 2, they are both essentially the same thing.
Autosomal Recessive Disorder
two copies of an abnormal gene must be present in order for the disease or trait to develop.
Recessive disorders are like pieces of a puzzle, in order for them to show a picture, both pieces have to be there.
the bacterial mechanism for the transfer of genetic material in which free DNA of one genotype is taken in through the cell surface of bacteria of another genotype and is incorporated into the recipient cell chromosome
This transformation is like ordering pizza, you send in the order (the DNA) , and someone else ( in this case the bacteria) makes the pizza.
the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc.
Biotechnology is like taking something apart and making it better, or worse, by modifying it, like a computer, you can add things like software, or make it worse by introducing a virus into the computer.
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Chromosomes are like safes, they carry all the important information like passports, or birth certificates. Or in this case DNA.
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
Condons are like legos, which are made in sequences that form the end product like a lego house or in this case ,DNA.
a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
Anticondon are like the pieces that connect with the bottom of the other lego pieces.
a relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele, from each parent. If the alleles are different, the dominant allele usually will be expressed, while the effect of the other allele, called recessive, is masked.
Codominance is like equillibrium on a scale.
the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
crossing over is like when you mix two different ingredients together in a salad, so the salad has both toppings.
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
DNA is like the order you put in for how you want your pizza made.
An allele that expresses its phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a recessive allele
Dominant alleles are like when two objects are placed on a scale and one is heavier than the other and tips the scale.
an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Recessive alleles are like when you have a puzzle and you have to have 2 pieces to fit with each other to show what the picture is supposed to be.
a congenital disorder arising from a chromosome defect, causing intellectual impairment and physical abnormalities including short stature and a broad facial profile. It arises from a defect involving chromosome 21, usually an extra copy (trisomy-21).
Down syndrome is like when a computer is missing software and does not work normally.
a technique used to separate mixtures like DNA and proteins. The separation is based on how positively or how negatively charged a molecule is, and its size. Gel electrophoresis uses a gel (like gelatin) and an electric field is put through the gel.
Gel electrophoresis is like separating liquids from solids in a strainer.
a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Genes are like ingredients in a salad, because certain ingredients will get in your bowl when you serve the salad.
the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
Genotype is like the programming in a computer
Genetically Modified Organism
organisms (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination.
GMOs are like revamped clothing
the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Genetics are like the study of code for a computer.
the transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
Gene therapy is like the installation of better programming in a defective computer
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Heredity is like when someone inherits their ancestors belongings
a pair of matching alleles, which are the two genes that control a particular trait.
Homozygous alleles are like a pair of matching socks
a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive
Heterozygous alleles are like a pair of socks that are not matching
Human Genome Project
an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.
The human genome project is like looking closely at pieces of a puzzle
a genetic situation in which one allele does not completely dominate another allele, and therefore results in a new phenotype.
Incomplete dominance is like when two different colored paints mix.
the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
Karyotype is like the picture on the top of a puzzle box , and it also includes the number of puzzle pieces the box contains
Law of Independent Assortment
the principle, originated by Gregor Mendel, stating that when two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together.
The law of independent assortment is like entering a raffle, you have an equal opportunity to be picked
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Meiosis is like splitting an orange in half, you only get half an orange
an allele of a genetic locus having more than two allelic forms within a population.
Multiple alleles is like having two of the same puzzle pieces
the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division, usually resulting in an abnormal distribution of chromosomes in the daughter nuclei.
Non disjunction is like a paper jam in a printer, where the copies don't separate so they get stuck together
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
A phenotype is like picture instruction of how to build Lego figures
ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
RNA is like the mail man of the cell
A trait associated with a gene that is carried only by the male or female parent. Note : In humans, the gene for colorblindness is carried by the X-chromosome.
A sex linked trait is like a magnet that sticks to only one type of chromosome
the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes). In most higher organisms, one sex (male) produces a small motile gamete that travels to fuse with a larger stationary gamete produced by the other (female).
Sexual reproduction is like mixing ingredients together to make food
of, relating to, or denoting an organism that contains genetic material into which DNA from an unrelated organism has been artificially introduced.
Transgenic is like when you attach things to clothes that wouldn't naturally be there
the process by which genetic information represented by a sequence of DNA nucleotides is copied into newly synthesized molecules of RNA, with the DNA serving as a template.
Transcription is like when you copy a picture creating a template for future pictures
the process by which a sequence of nucleotide triplets in a messenger RNA molecule gives rise to a specific sequence of amino acids during synthesis of a polypeptide or protein.
Translation is like fitting pieces of a puzzle together
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