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an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings allowing the patient to gain self insight
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth
empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to things they fear or avoid
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders or public speaking
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) to their average
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
a now rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain
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