30.2 Food and Nutrition
Terms in this set (29)
Measure of heat energy in food; Equal to1,000 calories.
Amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.
Type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body.
Type of nutrient that protects body organs, insulates body, stores energy.
Needed by body for growth and repair.
Organic molecule that helps regulate body processes/
Inorganic nutrient the body needs in small amounts.
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Why do we need to eat?
- Contain chemical energy used to produce ATP.
- Supply raw materials needed to build and repair tissues.
When food burns, most energy is converted into what? What is this measured by?
Heat; Measured by calories.
When does the energy stored in food molecules release?
During cellular respiration.
When cellular respiration produces ATP molecules, what is it used for?
To power cellular activities.
Chemical pathways - including cellular respiration - can extract _______ from almost any type of food.
Food supplies raw materials that are used to do what?
- Build and repair body tissues
- Make enzymes
- Lipids in membranes
Food contains at least __ substances that the body needs but cannot manufacture.
Healthy diet ensures that...
our body receives all required substances.
What nutrients does your body need?
Water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals.
Substances in food that supply the energy and raw materials your body uses for growth, repair, and maintenance.
What is the most important nutrient?
Why does every cell need water?
Because the body's processes & chemical reactions take place in water.
True or false: Water makes up the bulk of blood, extra cellular fluids, and other bodily fluids.
What are three ways water can be lost by?
Sweat, urine, exhaling.
How much water/fluid does an average human need to drink in a day?
At least 1 liter.
What happens when dehydration takes place?
Problems with body systems occur, and under extreme conditions it can be fatal.
Carbohydrates are made up of what elements?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
What are the two types of carbohydrates?
Simple and complex.
What is the major source of energy for the body?
What are examples of simple carbohydrates?
Sugar found in fruits, honey, and sugar cane. (monosaccharides and disaccharides).
What are examples of complex carbohydrates?