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Arteries are sometimes called ____ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have stron-resillient tissue structures
The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the _______ and in large arteries and veins contains the _______.
Tunica externa; vasa vasorum
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except
heart-arteries-capillary bed - vein- capillary bed- arteries - heart
In people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
failure of the venous valves
What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and dialstolic pressure respectively?
80 mm Hg
____ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _______ also increase heart rate.
Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is
blood hydrostatic pressure
The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is
blood colloid osmotic pressure
A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause ____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHG can cause
______ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permabilty.
A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which can cause ____ and a _______ in arterial blood pressure.
Blood flow to the _______ remains quite stable even when the MAP fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm HG
From superior to inferior , the major branches of the abdominal aorta are
celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries
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