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Arteries are sometimes called ____ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have stron-resillient tissue structures


______ have the thickest tunica media

Large arteries

The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the _______ and in large arteries and veins contains the _______.

Tunica externa; vasa vasorum

Most blood is in the


These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except

heart-arteries-capillary bed - vein- capillary bed- arteries - heart

Vasomotion is associated with the presence of

smooth muscle in the tunica media

In people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by

failure of the venous valves

What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and dialstolic pressure respectively?

80 mm Hg

The velocity of blood flow decreases whenq

viscosity increases

The medullary ischemic reflex results in

increased circulation to the brain

_____ has the most important effect on blood velocity

Vessel radius

Reactive hypermia is a result of _______ to increase perfusion into a tissue

local control

All of these increase blood pressure except

atrial natriuretic peptide

The vasomotor center of the ______ controls blood vessels throughout the body

medulla oblongata

Hypertension is commonly considered to be a chronic resting blood pressure higher than


____ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _______ also increase heart rate.

Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine

These are all mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall except


The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is

blood hydrostatic pressure

_______ by the capillaries at their venous end

waste products are taken up

The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is

blood colloid osmotic pressure

All of these can lead to edema except


_______ would not increase capillary filtration


A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause ____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHG can cause

syncope;cerebral edema

______ does not contribute to venous return

widespread vasodilation

_____ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns, or dehydration


______ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permabilty.


A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which can cause ____ and a _______ in arterial blood pressure.


Myocardial infarction can lead to ______ shock


The most important force in venous flow is

the pressure generated by the heart

Blood flow to the _______ remains quite stable even when the MAP fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm HG


Pulmonary arteries have ________ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries

considerably lower

How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart


The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the

bronchial arteries

There are no _____ in humans

right and left brachiocephalic arteries

The ___ supplies 80% of the cerebrum

internal cartoid artery

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is

an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland

From superior to inferior , the major branches of the abdominal aorta are

celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries

The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by ways of

the azygos system

These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except

the vertebral veins

These are all veins of the upper limb except

the great saphenous vein

These are all vessels of the lower limb except

the anterior interosseous artery

This is the longest vein and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery

the great saphenous vein

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