5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Which of the following is most closely identical to the formation of twins?
A) therapeutic cloning
B) embryo transfer
C) organismal cloning
D) cell cloning
E) use of adult stem cells
- In humans, the embryonic and fetal forms of hemoglobin have a higher affinity for oxygen than that of adults. This is due to
A) the attachment of methyl groups to cytosine following birth, which changes the type of hemoglobin produced.
B) pseudogenes, which interfere with gene expression in adults.
C) histone proteins changing shape during embryonic development.
D) identical genes that generate many copies of the ribosomes needed for fetal globin production.
E) nonidentical genes that produce different versions of globins during development.
- If glucose is available in the environment of E. coli, the cell responds with a very low concentration of cAMP. When the cAMP increases in concentration, it binds to CAP. Which of the following would you expect to be a measurable effect?
A) decreased binding of the RNA polymerase to sugar metabolism-related promoters
B) decreased concentration of alternative sugars in the cell
C) increased concentrations of sugars such as arabinose in the cell D) decreased concentration of the lac enzymes
E) increased concentration of the trp enzymes
- For a particular microarray assay (DNA chip), cDNA has been made from the mRNAs of a dozen patients' breast tumor biopsies. The researchers will be looking for
A) a pattern shared among some or all of the samples that indicates gene expression differing from control samples.
B) a pattern of fluorescence that indicates which cells are overproliferating.
C) a group of cDNAs that match those in non-breast cancer control samples from the same
D) a group of cDNAs that act differently from those on the rest of the grid.
E) a particular gene that is amplified in all or most of the patient samples.
- In recent times, it has been shown that adult cells can be induced to become pluripotent stem cells (iPS). In order to make this conversion, what has been done to the adult cells?
A) Cytoplasm from embryonic cells is injected into the adult cells.
B) An adenovirus vector is used to transfer embryonic gene products into adult cells.
C) The nucleus of an embryonic cell is used to replace the nucleus of an adult cell.
D) A retrovirus is used to introduce four specific regulatory genes.
E) The adult stem cells must be fused with embryonic cells.
- a A) a pattern shared among some or all of the samples that indicates gene expression differing from control samples
- b C) increased concentrations of sugars such as arabinose in the cell
- c D) A retrovirus is used to introduce four specific regulatory genes
- d E) nonidentical genes that produce different versions of globins during development
- e C) organismal cloning
5 Multiple choice questions
- B) decreased chromatin condensation
- A) to decrease the production from a harmful gain-of-function mutated gene
- E) X inactivation in the embryo is random and produces different patterns
- D) the anterior- posterior axis
- B) interference with new viral replication in preexisting cases
5 True/False questions
Which of the following problems with animal cloning might result in premature death of the clones?
A) use of pluripotent instead of totipotent stem cells
B) abnormal regulation due to variant methylation
C) use of nuclear DNA as well as mtDNA
D) abnormal immune function due to bone marrow dysfunction
E) the indefinite replication of totipotent stem cells → B) abnormal regulation due to variant methylation
Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that allows her to move DNA sequences within a prokaryotic genome. If she moves the promoter for the lac operon to the region between the beta galactosidase gene and the permease gene, which of the following would be likely?
A) Three structural genes will no longer be expressed.
B) The operon will no longer be inducible.
C) The cell will continue to metabolize but more slowly.
D) RNA polymerase will no longer transcribe permease.
E) Beta galactosidase will be produced. → B) increased chromatin condensation
Which of the following is one of the technical reasons why gene therapy is problematic?
A) Most cells with an engineered gene do not produce gene product.
B) Transferred genes may not have appropriately controlled activity.
C) Most cells with engineered genes overwhelm other cells in a tissue.
D) mRNA from transferred genes cannot be translated.
E) Cells with transferred genes are unlikely to replicate → B) abnormal regulation due to variant methylation
One successful form of gene therapy has involved delivery of an allele for the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) to bone marrow cells of a child with SCID, and delivery of these engineered cells back to the bone marrow of the affected child. What is one major reason for the success of this procedure as opposed to many other efforts at gene therapy?
A) The engineered bone marrow cells from this patient can be used for any other SCID patient.
B) No vector is required to introduce the allele into ADA-negative cells.
C) The engineered cells, when reintroduced into the patient, find their way back to the bone
D) The ADA-introduced allele causes all other ADA-negative cells to die.
E) The immune system fails to recognize cells with the variant gene. → C) The engineered cells, when reintroduced into the patient, find their way back to the bone marrow
Which of the following is characteristic of the product of the p53 gene?
A) It causes cell death via apoptosis.
B) It speeds up the cell cycle.
C) It allows cells to pass on mutations due to DNA damage.
D) It slows down the rate of DNA replication by interfering with the binding of DNA polymerase.
E) It is an activator for other genes. → C) organismal cloning