Babbie, Intro. to Social Research, Chs. 1-7
Terms in this set (65)
Observing few, making conclusions about all
Observing things that support your premise
Accepting the reality of something they don't observe
The Science of knowing
The Science of finding out
repeating a study to check for the same results
Assumption that we saw things as they really were
Reality is determined by our own observation. Nothing exists, only our perceptions
Foundations of Social Science
Logic and Observation
Patterns in social life
Observed collective action, not individual
Variables and Concepts
V- A varying cause (system of variables)
Characteristics that describe a person or thing (I an a/n: female, Asian, alienated, conservative, dishonest, intelligent, farmer...)
Logical sets of attributes (sex, race, status, political party, intelligence, occupation...)
The variable that is presumed to cause the dependent variable. (A variable can be independent in one part and dependent in another.) ex: gender...religiosity
A variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another. ex: higher income depends on education
An approach that is exhaustive of idiosyncratic causes. Listing ALL the reasons. Very helpful for social science.
Identifying a few key causal factors that impact conditions or events. (2 or 3 major reasons for choosing a college) Not helpful for social science
Making specific observations and drawing general conclusions.
Making a general observation then drawing a specific conclusion. (All deans are meanies...)
Gaining knowledge for its own sake
Research done with a purpose for application
Fundamental frames of reference that underlie social theories and inquiry...they provide frames of looking.
Aimed at understanding the "big picture." (institutions, whole societies, nations etc.)
Aimed at understaind social life on individual levels. ex: behavior of boys compared to girls.
The belief that society can be observed scientifically.
A paradigm that says society is people's efforts to dominate others and avoid being dominated.
Belief that common understanding can be achieved between people when they reach common understanding through language and other symbols.
Each persons methodological attempt to make sense of life as they experience it through daily interactions.
"social systems theory" Belief that social organizations can be viewed as organisms.
Majorities will only support minorities when it actually supports them.
Reality is defines as something that has real effects. (racism is real because of its effects)
After conceptualization, specifying operations involved in measuring a variable.
Concrete and specific definition of something in terms of operations. Ex: Good grade = getting 90 or better)
Hypothesis that suggests that there is no relationship between variables. It can be rejected with empirical data.
Can go against scientific concerns.
A norm in which subjects base their voluntary participation on a full understanding of the possible risks involved.
Guaranteed in research project when neither the researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent.
Interviewing subjects to learn about their experience of participation in the project and inform them of any unrevealed purposes.
3 Purposes of Research
Exploration, Description, Explanation
Empirical relationship between 2 variables such that changes/attributes in one are associated with changes in another.
Coincidental statistical correlation between two variables shown to be caused by some third variable.
Unit of Analysis
To what or whom being studied
Any product of social beings or their behavior
Erroneously based conclusions of individuals soley on observation of groups.
A fault of some researchers who put strict limits on the kinds of concepts considered relevant to the study.
study based on observations from a specific point in time.
study design involving data collected at different points in time.
Type of longitudinal study in which a unique characteristic of some population is monitored over time.
Study of a specific subpopulation over time...can be collected from a number of members.
Type of longitudinal study in which data are collected from the same set of people at several points in time.
Elements of Research Proposal
Problem/Objective, Literature Review, Subjects for Study, Measurement, Data-Collection Methods, Analysis, Schedule, Budget, Institutional Review Board.
Deliberate observations of the real world for the purpose of describing objects and events in terms of the attributes composing a variable.
Process of making concepts more specific.
Observation we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable
An aspect of a concept that can be specified
Level of measurement describing a variable with attributes that are merely different
A measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure
Quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable.
Degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships.
Degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept.