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SOC 101 -EXAM 1.

CHAPTERS 2,3,4 & 5.
STUDY
PLAY
WHAT DO SOCIOLOGISTS CALL TWO OR MORE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER?
SOCIAL GROUP
What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as "college students"?
CATEGORY
Passengers sitting in an airport gate area to board a plane are an example of a
CROWD
Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships using the term
PRIMARY GROUP
Which of the following is every society's most important primary group?
FAMILY
Which of the following attributes is NOT characteristic of secondary groups?
Close enduring friendships
In general, we see the SECONDARY GROUP
as a means to an end
we see the PRIMARY GROUP
as an end in itself.
What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
INSTRUMENTAL
What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?
COLLECTIVE
Solomon Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed
CONFORMITY
Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator," showed
CONFORMITY and OBEDIENCE to LEADERS
What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue caused by group conformity?
GROUPTHINK
Which of the following terms refers to a social group that people use as a point of evaluation in making evaluations or decisions?
REFERENCE
What is the term for a social group that commands a member's esteem and loyalty?
INGROUP
What is the term for a social group toward which we feel competition or opposition?
OUTGROUP
What is the sociological term for a social group with two members?
DYAD
Which statement reflects Simmel's understanding of the dyad?
LESS STABLE
WHAT IS A TRIAD?
THREE PEOPLE
Which of the following is typically true of a social network?
WEAK TIES & IDENTITY
Formal organizations are?
Institutionalized Social Grops, Goal Oriented
At a given time you occupy a number of statuses. These are your:
STATUS SET
WHAT defines who and what we are in relation to others.
STATUS
What is the term for a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life?
ascribed status
What is the term for a social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects a significant measure of personal ability and effort?
ACHIEVED STATUS
Which of the following might well serve as a master status?
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Sociologists use what term to refer to behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
ROLE
A role set refers to:
a number of roles attached to a single status.
Joan is an excellent artist, but finds she cannot devote enough time to her family.
ROLE STRAIN
What is the term for the tension among roles connected to a single status?
ROLE STRAIN
People disengage from important social roles?
ROLE EXIT
The Thomas theorem states that:
situations defined as real are real in their consequences
What plays a part in the reality we construct within social interaction?
ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE CORRECT
Nonverbal communication refers to:
body movements, gestures, and facial expressions
In what way do men and women typically differ in their use of space?
Men commonly use more space than women
When interacting with people of an unfamiliar cultural background,:
what is funny to people in one society is often lost on those from another society.
People generate reality in their social interaction. T/F
TRUE
Social structure, including status and role, provides a guide for everyday living. T/F
TRUE
A status set refers to the roles people have over the course of their lifetimes T/F
FALSE
A role set refers to all the roles a person has ever performed. T/F
FALSE
Typically, many roles are linked to a single status. T/F
TRUE
People usually have more statuses than they have roles T/F
FALSE
Culture guides the display of emotions. T/F
TRUE
People sometimes use jokes to "put down" others--a basic form of social conflict T/F
TRUE
As a part of human culture, religion is an example of:
NON MATERIAL CULTURE
What is the term for the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that, together, constitute a people's way of life?
CULTURE
Humans stand out among all forms of life as the only species that
relies on culture to ensure survival.
Sociologists define a symbol as:
Anything that carries a meaning to people who share a culture.
Cultural transmission refers to the process of:
passing cultural patterns from one generation to another.
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:
VALUES
Which of the following is NOT a value central to U.S. culture, by sociologist Robin Williams?
MATERIAL COMFORT
The dominant values of U.S. culture share which of the following?
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Core cultural values
are sometimes in conflict with one another
Wrong-doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity is an example of violating:
MORES
An act of kindness, such as opening the door for an elderly man, illustrates conforming to
FOLKWAYS
It is correct to say that the development of more complex technology:
is mostly negative in its effects
The spread of virtual culture means that culture is now less likely to be
passed down from one generation to the next.
The distinction between high culture and popular culture is based primarily
the social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern.
Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as:
POPULAR CULTURE
A century ago, most of those who immigrated to the United States came from:
EUROPE
Today, most immigrants to the United States arrive from
LATIN AMERICA AND ASIA
A subculture refers to:
cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population.
Multiculturalism is defined as:
an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equality of all cultural traditions
Cultural integration refers to the fact that:
change in one cultural pattern is usually linked to changes in others.
Comparing college students of the late 1960s, today's students are most likely to be concerned with:
MAKING MONEY
The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that:
some cultural elements change more quickly than others.
The text states that cultural change is set in motion in three general ways
invention, discovery, and diffusion
The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called:
DIFFUSION
Ethnocentrism refers to:
judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture.
A person who criticizes the Amish farmer as backward for tilling his fields with horses (instead of a tractor) is exhibiting:
ETHNOCENTRISM
Cultural universals are cultural traits that:
are part of every known culture
The U.S. has a popular culture, but not a high culture. T/F
FALSE
We all participate in numerous subcultures without necessarily becoming very committed to any of them. T/F
TRUE
Subculture is more at odds with dominant culture than counterculture. T/F
FALSE
The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl studied by Kingsley Davis, best shows that
without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action.
What is the lifelong social experience by which human beings learn culture?
SOCIALIZATION
What is the term for a person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling?
PERSONALITY
Based on both the Harlows' research with rhesus monkeys and the case of Anna the isolated child, one might reasonably conclude
long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans.
Family is important to the socialization process because
ALL OF THE ABOVE
The special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes
exposing the child to a bureaucratic setting.
When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in
anticipatory socialization
In historical perspective, the power of the mass media in the socialization process has
increased over time
On average, a U.S. household has at least one television turned on for __________ hours a day.
OVER 7
Looking at childhood in global perspective, we find that
rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do.
Industrial societies typically define people in old age as
less aware and important than younger adults.
The survey of the life course in the text leads the reader to conclude that
while life-course stages are linked to biology, they are largely a social construction.