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research on communication skills of nonhuman primates reveals that

they can't combine the calls for food and danger into a single utterance

when Washoe and Lucy tried to teach sign language to other chimpanzees, this was an example of

cultural transmission

recent research on the origin of language suggests that

a mutation in humans (which happened 15,000 years ago) may have conferred selective advantages (linguistic and cultural abilities)

what is the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions


the scientific study of a spoken language involves several interrelated areas of analysis. Which area refers to all of a language's morphemes and their meanings?


what does the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis state?

different languages produce different ways of thinking

studies on the differences between female and male Americans in regard to the color terms they suggest that

in opposition to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, it might be more reasonable to say that changes in culture produce changes in language and thought rather than the reverse.


-they are concerned more with performance than with competence
-they look at society and at language
-they are concerned with linguistic change
-they focus on surface structure

honorifics are terms used with people, often being added to their names, to "honor" them. why would sociolinguists be interested in studying the use of honorifics

they may convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed.

Black English Vernacular (BEV)

-many aspects of BEV are also present in southern white speech
-BEV is not inferior to SE
-linguists view BEV as a dialect of SE, not a different language
-BEV is not an ungrammatical collection of SE expressions

_________ refers to the ability to create new expressions by combining other expressions, while _________ is the ability to describe things and events that are not present


variation in speech due to different contexts or situations is known as _______

style shifting

_______ refers to the existence of "high" and "low" dialects within a single language


in a stratified society, even people who do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as "standard" or superior. In Pierre Bourdieu's term, this is the instance of _________

symbolic domination

the world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half in the past________ years, and half of the remaining ________languages are predicted to disappear during this century


interview schedule

form (guide) used to structure a formal, but personal interview


form used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents

genealogical method

using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections

key cultural consultant

expert on a particular aspect of local life


research strategy focusing on local explanations and meanings

cultural consultants

people who teach an enthographer about their culture


research strategy emphasizing the ethnographers explanations and categories

longitudinal research

long-term study, usually based on repeated visits

survey research

the study of society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection


a smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population

random sample

a sample in which all population members have an equal chance of inclusion


attributes that differ from one person or case to the next

complex societies

large, populous societies with stratification and a government.

unilinear evolutionism

idea of a single line or path of cultural development

historical particularism

idea (boas) that histories are not comparable; diverse paths can lead to the same cultural result


approach focusing on the role (function) of sociocultural practices in social systems


studying societies at one time


studying societies across time


view of culture as integrated and patterned

cultural materialism

idea (harris) that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure


(kroeber) the special domain of culture, beyond the organic and inorganic remains

symbolic anthropology

the study of symbols in their social and cultural context

interpretive anthropology

(geertz) the study of a culture as a system of meaning


the actions of individuals, alone and in groups, that create and transform culture

political economy

the web of interrelated economic and power relations in society

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