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40 terms

anthropology chapter 3

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research on communication skills of nonhuman primates reveals that
they can't combine the calls for food and danger into a single utterance
when Washoe and Lucy tried to teach sign language to other chimpanzees, this was an example of
cultural transmission
recent research on the origin of language suggests that
a mutation in humans (which happened 15,000 years ago) may have conferred selective advantages (linguistic and cultural abilities)
what is the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
kinesics
the scientific study of a spoken language involves several interrelated areas of analysis. Which area refers to all of a language's morphemes and their meanings?
lexicon
what does the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis state?
different languages produce different ways of thinking
studies on the differences between female and male Americans in regard to the color terms they suggest that
in opposition to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, it might be more reasonable to say that changes in culture produce changes in language and thought rather than the reverse.
sociolinguistics
-they are concerned more with performance than with competence
-they look at society and at language
-they are concerned with linguistic change
-they focus on surface structure
honorifics are terms used with people, often being added to their names, to "honor" them. why would sociolinguists be interested in studying the use of honorifics
they may convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed.
Black English Vernacular (BEV)
-many aspects of BEV are also present in southern white speech
-BEV is not inferior to SE
-linguists view BEV as a dialect of SE, not a different language
-BEV is not an ungrammatical collection of SE expressions
_________ refers to the ability to create new expressions by combining other expressions, while _________ is the ability to describe things and events that are not present
productivity
displacement
variation in speech due to different contexts or situations is known as _______
style shifting
_______ refers to the existence of "high" and "low" dialects within a single language
diglossia
in a stratified society, even people who do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as "standard" or superior. In Pierre Bourdieu's term, this is the instance of _________
symbolic domination
the world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half in the past________ years, and half of the remaining ________languages are predicted to disappear during this century
500
7,000
interview schedule
form (guide) used to structure a formal, but personal interview
questionnaire
form used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents
genealogical method
using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections
key cultural consultant
expert on a particular aspect of local life
emic
research strategy focusing on local explanations and meanings
cultural consultants
people who teach an enthographer about their culture
etic
research strategy emphasizing the ethnographers explanations and categories
longitudinal research
long-term study, usually based on repeated visits
survey research
the study of society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection
sample
a smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population
random sample
a sample in which all population members have an equal chance of inclusion
variables
attributes that differ from one person or case to the next
complex societies
large, populous societies with stratification and a government.
unilinear evolutionism
idea of a single line or path of cultural development
historical particularism
idea (boas) that histories are not comparable; diverse paths can lead to the same cultural result
functionalism
approach focusing on the role (function) of sociocultural practices in social systems
synchronic
studying societies at one time
diachronic
studying societies across time
configurationalism
view of culture as integrated and patterned
cultural materialism
idea (harris) that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure
superorganic
(kroeber) the special domain of culture, beyond the organic and inorganic remains
symbolic anthropology
the study of symbols in their social and cultural context
interpretive anthropology
(geertz) the study of a culture as a system of meaning
agency
the actions of individuals, alone and in groups, that create and transform culture
political economy
the web of interrelated economic and power relations in society