has large capacity; contains our memory for experiences and information that we have accumulated over a lifetime.
memories for events that happened to you; it allows you to travel backward in subjective time to reminisce about earlier episodes in your life.
describes organized knowledge about the world, including your knowledge about words and other factual information.
initial acquisition of information; this is the time when information is embedded in your memory.
deep, meaningful kinds of information processing lead to more permanent retention than shallow, sensory kinds of processing (also called depth-of-processing approach).
a stimulus is different from other memory traces. One of the factors encouraging recall in deep processing.
second factor that operates with deep levels of processing. Requires rich processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts.
you remember more information if you try to relate that information to yourself.
statistical method for synthesizing numerous studies on a single topic. Index that tells us whether a variable has a statistically significant effect.
encoding specificity principle
recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context.
pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and accurately than less pleasant items.
refers to your style of interacting with other people, in terms of friendships and other interpersonal relationships.
explicit memory task
researcher directly instructs participants to remember information; the participants are conscious that their memory is being tested, and the test requires them to intentionally retrieve some information they previously learned.
implicit memory tasks
More indirect than explicit. People see the material; later, during the test phase people are instructed to complete a cognitive task that does not directly ask for either recall or recognition. Researchers avoid using the words "remember" and "recall"
repetition priming task
recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll think of this particular word, when you are given a cue that could evoke many different words.
occurs when a variable has large effects on Test A, but little or no effects on Test B; this also occurs when a variable has one kind of effect if measured by Test A, and exactly the opposite effect if measured by Test B.
people have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering with our new learning.
loss of memory for events that occurred PRIOR to brain damage; the deficit is especially severe for events that occurred during the years just before the damage.
a person who has this shows consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks in a particular area.