brief, immediate memory for material we are currently processing
has large capacity; contains our memory for experiences and information that we have accumulated over a lifetime.
memories for events that happened to you; it allows you to travel backward in subjective time to reminisce about earlier episodes in your life.
describes organized knowledge about the world, including your knowledge about words and other factual information.
refers to your knowledge about how to do something (riding a bicycle).
initial acquisition of information; this is the time when information is embedded in your memory.
locating information in storage and assessing that information.
memory for events/topics related to your own everyday life.
deep, meaningful kinds of information processing lead to more permanent retention than shallow, sensory kinds of processing (also called depth-of-processing approach).
a stimulus is different from other memory traces. One of the factors encouraging recall in deep processing.
second factor that operates with deep levels of processing. Requires rich processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts.
you remember more information if you try to relate that information to yourself.
statistical method for synthesizing numerous studies on a single topic. Index that tells us whether a variable has a statistically significant effect.
encoding specificity principle
recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context.
the act of recalling the items learned earlier
the act of identifying whether they saw a particular item at an earlier time.
a reaction to a specific stimulus
more general, long-lasting experience.
pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and accurately than less pleasant items.
people tend to rate past events more positively with the passage of time.
you'll recall material more accurately if it is congruent with your mood.
refers to your style of interacting with other people, in terms of friendships and other interpersonal relationships.
approach social goals
high score -- tend to emphasize close relationships with other people.
avoidance social goals
high score -- tend to avoid close relationships with other people
explicit memory task
researcher directly instructs participants to remember information; the participants are conscious that their memory is being tested, and the test requires them to intentionally retrieve some information they previously learned.
two types of explicit memory tasks
recall test, recognition test
implicit memory tasks
More indirect than explicit. People see the material; later, during the test phase people are instructed to complete a cognitive task that does not directly ask for either recall or recognition. Researchers avoid using the words "remember" and "recall"
repetition priming task
recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll think of this particular word, when you are given a cue that could evoke many different words.
occurs when a variable has large effects on Test A, but little or no effects on Test B; this also occurs when a variable has one kind of effect if measured by Test A, and exactly the opposite effect if measured by Test B.
people have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering with our new learning.
people who have severe deficits in their episodic memory
loss of memory for events that occurred PRIOR to brain damage; the deficit is especially severe for events that occurred during the years just before the damage.
loss of memory for events that have occurred AFTER brain damage.
a structure underneath the cortex that is important in many earning and memory tasks.
a person who has this shows consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks in a particular area.
people are generally more accurate in identifying members of their own ethnic group than members of another ethnic group.