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little organs inside the cell


movement toward/away from light


movement toward/away from substances

prokaryotic cells

divided into domain Bacteria and domain Archaea (old)

difference in Bacteria and Archaea

what cell wall consists of, where they live

size of proK

.5-2.0 µm

shapes of proK

coccus, bacillus, spiral, pleomorphism


round shape


rod shaped, oval


vibrio, spirillum, spirochete


comma shape


ridged, wavy shape


corkscrew, twisted on themself


bacteria vary widely in form even w/in a single culture

arrangement of proK by the groups of cells

diplo- pairs; strepto- chains; tetrads- 4 cells in a cube; sarcinae- 8, 16, 32 cells in a cube (3D); staphylo- grapelike cluster; palisade- matchsticks; trichomes- bricks; other arrangements- sq, star, rect, filaments

proK division by

binary fission- new cell wall material grows, cell pinches in half through this area; inside the chromosome has duplicated, one found in ea daughter cell; not meiosis nor mitosis

structure of proK

cell wall, components, cell membrane, internal structures, external structures

cell wall of proK

semi-ridged structure

function of cell wall in proK

maintain cell shape; prevent cell from bursting when taking in fluid; in some bacteria, it protects that bacteria from antibiotics

components of proK

differ in Gram+ and Gram- cells; peptidoglycan, outer membrane, periplasmic space


murein; polymer; most important component of the cell wall; made of 2 sugars- acetylglycosamine (gluNAc) and N-acetylmuramic (murNAc), which are attached to 4 AA (tetrapeptide). these are attached to ea other by crossed linked peptide bonds, these differ in ea species


when peptidoglycan layers are thin


when peptidoglycan layers are thick; also have teichoic acid- attachment site for bacteriophages, passageway for movement of ions in/out of the cell

outer membrane

primarily in Gram- bacteria; acts as a coarse sieve- controls movement of certain proteins from the environment; lipopolysaccharide

lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

endotoxin; stays w/in cell until it dies, then toxin released, used to identify Gram-, causes fever and dilates blood vessels; decrease blood pressue

periplasmic space

gap in wall of Gram-, very active, holds peptidoglycan, contains digestive enzymes and transports proteins

acid fact bacteria

mycobacteria; 60% lipids; contains much less peptidoglycan; grows slowly, can be stained by Gram stain; stains purple

wall deficient organisms

mycoplasma; have no cell wall; cell membrane contain sterol; vary widely in shape; must be grown differently; wont grow in agar


form channels through the outer membrane, control ions that enter

cell membrane

fluid mosaic model; living membrane; not a solid structure; phospholipid bilayer; charged phosphate heads, hydrophilic; fatty acid tails, hydrophobic


form mosaic pattern; between phospholipid; carrier proteins- move things across membrane, goes all the way through; loosely attached but stationary; outer edge- id of organism; inner edge- digestive enzymes

functions of the membrane of proK

selectively permeable; produces cell wall components; assists in DNA replication; secretes proteins; carries out respiration; captures energy as ATP

internal structures of proK

cytoplasm, ribosomes, nuclear region, internal membrane systems, inclusions, endospores

cytoplasm of proK

semifluid substance inside cell; jellylike; 4/5 water, 1/5 dissolved "stuff"; chem reactions take place

ribosomes of proK

consist of RNA and proteins; site for protein synthesis

nuclear region proK

nucleoid; single-strand of circular DNA

internal membrane systems of proK

chromatophores-contain pigments for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria


"storehouse"; granules- contain specific substances (glycogen/polyphosphate), might have metachromatic granules; vesicles- may contain gas for depth control, may contain iron

endospores of proK

not all bacterial cells can form spores; resting stage; reasons to produce spores- to save themself; can last thousands of years


endospore formation


circular pieces of DNA in cell; go through conjugation "bacteria sex"- not producing more but different

external structures of proK

flagella, pili, glycocalyx

flagella in proK

long, thin, helical appendages

structure of flagella in proK

basil body (attaches at cell membrane for movement), filament (made from protein called flagellin)

rotation of proK

one flagella- propellar liek to move forward/backward; runs- when many flagella are bundled together to move, last 1 sec, can move about 10X their length; tumbles- when many flagella move independently; last 0.1 sec, no forward progress

arrangements of proK

depend on type of bacteria; monotrichous- one flagella; amphitrichous- one at each end; lophotrichous- 2 or more at ends; peritrichous- all around; atrichous- no flagella; axial filaments- (like a drillbit) endoflagella, located between sheatha nd cell wall, found in spirochetes

pili of proK

tiny, hollow projections; smaller than flagella, more numerous, strawlike; conjugation pili and attachment pili

conjugation pili of proK

F pili; sex pili; where conjugation takes place

attachment pili of proK

fimbrae; hlep ahere bacteria to surfaces; help w/ disease producing aspects (pass toxin/disease)

glycocalyx of proK

made of polysaccharide; found external to the cell wall; capsule, slime layers

capsule of proK

not in all bacteria; secreted by cell wall; protection against phagocytosis

slime layers of proK

less tightly bound and thinner than capsule; protects cell from drying out; traps nutrients from environment; helps to bind cells together, helps stick to objects

eukaryotic cells

larger and more complex than prokaryotes

basic unit of life for kingdoms

animal, plants, protists, fungi

structures of eukaryote cells (16)

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, cell nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, endlplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, vacuoles, cytoskeleton, flagella, cilia, pseudopodia, cell wall

plasma membrane euK

control entry to/out of cell; encloses cell; sterol in the membrane; small surface to volume ratio that proK cells

cytoplasm of EuK

semi-fluid; less than in bacterial cells

cell nucleus of EuK

envelope, pores, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, chromosomes

nuclear envelope of euK

holds nucleus together

nuclear pores of euK

allow RNA to leave nucleus

nucleoplasm of euK

semi-fluid portion

nucelolus of euK

contains RNA; produces ribosomes

chromosomes of euK

genetic material; chromatin that is packed by histones- visible as individual pieces, ready for mitosis; chromatin (thin-like)

mitochodria of euK

powerhouse of the cell; ATP made

chloroplasts of euK

not in all eukaryotice cells; photosynthesis in plants/algae

ribosomes of euK

synthesis proteins

endopasmic reticulum of euK

site for rhibosomes; smooth- produces lipids; rough- ribosomes land to make proteins

golgi apparatus of euK

protein packaging factory (UPS of cells); produces lysosomes, helps form plasma membrane

lysosomes of euK

suicide sacks; releases digetsive enzymes to destroy cell or digest substances in the vacuoles; plant cells DO NOT have lysosomes

peroxisomes of euK

convert peroxides into H2O and O2; in plants oxidizes fats; in animals oxidizes AA

vacuoles of euK

storage areas for glycogen, starch, fats; comes and goes

cytoskeleton of euK

network of protein fibers; used for structure and movement w/in the cytoplasm; microfilaments- movement; microtubules- rigidity, keeps form

flagella of euK

whiplike structure; larger more complex than in proK; found in collapsing protists; human sperm

cilia of euK

short hairlike structures, not hollow like pili; fan back/forth; found in protists and humans (respiratory/digestive tract)

pseudopodia of euk

false feet; produce amoeboid movement; no directionality; constantly changing shape; some white blood cells

cell wall of euK

plants, algae, fungi; in protist referred to as pellicles; animals DO NOT have cell walls


theory- two individual cells w/ own DNA co-habitat in the same cell. mitochondria/ chloroplast; divide independently w/in the same cell

movement across membranes

passive, active transport

passive transport

requires no energy for transport; simple- movement of particles from higher to lower concentration (air freshener); faciltated diffusion- must have protein carriers to move ions/molecules; osmosis- movement/diffusion of H2O

osmotic pressure

pressure required to prevent the net flow of water by osmosis

active transport

requires protein carriers; source of ATP; enzyme that rhe energy from ATP; endocytosis- out to in, invaginates/surround the substance---phagocytosis (cell eating), pinocytosis (cell drinking); exocytosis- out to in, secretion

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