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Microbial Metabolism Pt. 2
Terms in this set (61)
Coenzyme cofactors usually complete the active site of an enzyme and serve as electron "____," transferring them from one molecule to another.
____ regulation of enzymes is a way to activate or inactive an enzyme by temporarily changing its shape.
The number of ATP made (from one original glucose) by molecular rearrangement during the Krebs Cycle is _____.
6CO2 and 12H2O are ___-___ of aerobic respiration; 2CO2 are ___-___ of alcohol fermentation.
Metabolic convergence begins with an ____ precursor.
Decarboxylation refers to the removal of ____ ___ from a molecule.
During glycolysis, glucose undergoes ____ when 2H2 are removed.
An ____ is a biological catalyst that speeds up chemical reactions in cells by lowering the activation of energy necessary.
Anabolism occurs by means of mechanism called __ ___, whereby a molecule of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to join.
____ inhibition occurs when an inhibitor does not resemble the substrate and therefore does not block the enzyme's active site; heavy metal poisons such as lead, mercury, and cyanide are all examples.
During catalolism, a ____ is broken down into many monosaccharides by means of hydrolysis, wherby a molecule of water is added between two molecules to help separate them.
_____ are substances necessary to activate some enzymes; examples include metal ions from dietary minerals and coenzymes from vitamins.
Anabolism occurs when 3 fatty acids and a glycerol are joined together to form a ____ by means of dehydration synthesis (whereby a molecule of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to join).
____ occurs at the electron transport chain and results in large amounts of ATP being made.
Catabolism occurs when a triglyceride is broken down into 3 ___ ___ and 1 glycerol by means of hydrolysis, whereby a molecule of water is added between two molecules, allowing them to separate.
Anabolism occurs when many ___ are joined together to form a polysaccharide by means of dehydration synthesis, whereby a molecule of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to join.
ATP consists of a nitrogen base called adenine, a 5C sugar called ____ and 3 negatively charged phosphate groups.
Following fermentation in our muscle cells, lactic acids are carried to the liver where they are rebuilt into glucose in a process called _____.
Glycolysis, "prep" steps and Krebs cycle all occur in the ____ of prokaryotic cells.
Each NADH results in ____ ATP being made at the electron transport chain.
Metabolic divergence leads to an ___ end product.
ATP -> ADP ____ (requires/ releases) energy to do cellular work.
Coenzyme cofactors usually come from ____ in the diet.
Catabolism occurs when a ____ ____ (such as DNA or RNA) is broken down into nucleotides by means of hydrolysis, whereby a molecule of water is added between two molecules allowing them to separate.
In a eukaryotic cell, the "prep" steps and Krebs cycle occur in the ___ of the mitochondria.
In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain of aerobic respiration is located on cristae, the inner membrane folds of organelles called ____.
A____ ____ is a series of steps to change or transform molecules, with each step controlled by a specific enzyme.
____ is the part of metabolism that requires energy from ATP molecules.
Two ____ ____ (C2H5OH) molecules are the end products of alcohol fermentation.
In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain of photosynthesis is located on thylakoids, the inner membrane folds of organelles called _____.
Adding a phosphate group to any molecule (including ADP to make ATP) is called ____.
NAD+ is a ____ "carrier" that becomes NADH when food is oxidized.
During chemiosmosis, an electrochemical gradient is created by active transport at a ____ ____.
In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain of aerobic respiration is located on ____, the inner membrane folds of organelles called mitochondria.
The ___ is the molecule that enters a metabolic pathway.
In eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain of photosynthesis is located on ____, the inner membrane folds of organelles called chloroplasts.
An enzyme is an organic molecule called a ____, composed of a specific sequence of amino acids.
During aerobic respiration, ____ is the final e-/H+ acceptor.
___ ___ inhibition occurs when the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as a reversible inhibitor of the first enzyme of the pathway.
____ (such as NAD+ and FAD) are organic cofactors that are required by some enzymes; typically derived from vitamins in the diet.
The letters ATP stand for _____ _____.
____ occurs at the electron transport chain located on the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells, on the cristae of eukaryotic mitochondria, and on the tnylakoids of eukaryotic chloroplasts.
The combining site of a substrate matches the ___ ___ of it's enzyme.
Anabolism occurs when ____ are joined together to form nucleic acid (such as DNA, or RNA) by means of dehydration synthesis, whereby a molecule of water is removed from between two molecules, allowing them to join.
____ refers to the addition of water molecules during the Krebs cycle.
____ respiration only occurs in a few types of bacteria; does NOT require oxygen.
Carbon dioxide is a _____-____ of alcohol fermentation that is used by the baking industry to make bread rise.
Glycolysis was originally known as the ____-____ pathway.
Metabolic ___ leads to alternate end product.
_____ cells net 38 ATP from complete oxidation of a glucose molecule.
Catabolism occurs when proteins are broken down into ___ ___ by means of hydrolysis, whereby a molecule of water is added between two molecules, allowing them to separate.
The production of ATP at the electron transport chain of aerobic respiration is called ______ phosphorylation because the energy comes from the oxidation of food.
Catabolic reactions occur by means of _____,
Glycolysis occurs in the ____ of all cells.
Enzyme names should end with - ____.
ATP synthase is located at the end of a proton (H+) channel so that the ____ energy of protons flowing through can be harnessed to make ATP.
Positive allosteric regulation involves a reversible enzyme _____.
____ drugs inhibit the enzyme that changes PABA into folic acid.
Both the brewing and the baking industries depend upon the metabolic pathway known as ______ fermentation.
_____ is the enzyme that breaks down ATP when a cell needs energy.
Each FADH2 results in ____ (number) ATP being made at the electron transport chain.
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