A Persian leader who unified the Persians into a powerful kingdom, and started an empire larger than any seen.
The official or "protector of the kingdom" who ruled one of the satrapies in the Perian Empire under Darius. Served as tax collector, judge, chief of police, and head recruiter for the Persian army and answered to the Persian king.
Religion of ancient Persia. Monotheistic. Humans have the right to choose between right and wrong and goodness would always triumph in the end over evil.
Battle of Marathon
Significant battle of the Persian Wars because even though Athenians were out-numbered, they won using strategy. Inspired name of modern road race "marathon" after a messenger ran just over 26 miles home to declare victory.
Darius' son and took charge and attacked the Athenians with an army of 180,000 during the Persian Wars.
Factors that led to the fall of the Persian Empire
Weakened army after Greek defeat during Persian Wars; rulers after Darius and Xerxes raised taxes and brought luxuries to the royal court which angered the citizens; family members would kill each other for the throne. This made Persia vulnerable to attack. Greek Alexander the Great defeated the Persians.
Alexander the Great
A great Greek military ruler who conquered the Persian empire and spread Greek culture throughout soutwest Asia.
Athens and the other city-states came together to protect against the Persians. It started on Delos, but moved to Athens, the head city-state.
A general who guided Athens for more than 30 years. He helped Athens become very powerful and more democratic. He spoke his funeral oration which kept the Athenians having hope.
Age of Pericles
Focused on creativity, learning and rebuilding in Athenian Empire. Increased power and democracy.
Roles of Men & Women in Athens
During the Age of Pericles, men worked in the morning and then exercised or attended meetings of the assembly. Women's life revolved around home and family.
A women who was not a native of Athens who was well-educated and taught public speeking to many Athenians
How people in Athenian Empire made money
Farming (grapes, olives, grains; sheep and goat herding) and trade
War between Athens and Sparta. Sparta won because they had the Persians help them.
Pericles Funeral Oration
A speech made by Pericles for the soldiers who died in Peloponnesain War that reminded Athenians of the power of democracy, gave them hope and the courage to keep fighting.
Ancient kingdom in the Balboan Penninsula in southern Europe
A traditional or legendary story about gods and heros.
The time when Alexander the Great ruled and Greek language and ideas spread to non-Greek peoples of southwest Asia.
Home of Greek Gods, highest mountain in Greece
A greek king of Macedon at age 20 who later became known as Alexander the Great and by the age of 30 created one of the largest empires of the ancient world
A Greek philosopher/teacher who taught that the universe followed the same laws that governed music and numbers. Developed new ideas about math, including the Pythagorean theorem, a way to determine the length of the sides of a triangle.
People who followed the philosophy of Zeno and believed that happiness came from following reason, not emotions, and doing your duty. (Word means "porch" because meetings were held on a painted porch)
Considered the greatest historian of the ancient world. He fought in the Peloponnesian War for Athens and recorded the events he witnessed, stressed accurate facts.
Ancient Greek historian who wrote the history of the Persian War.
Author of the "Iliad" and "Odyssey," the first great epic poems of early Greece.
Ruler of Greek gods, god of rain, god of the sky.
Real and legendary city located in what is now Turkey.
Greek philopher who was one of the founders of western philosophy.
Athenian philosopher in Hellenistic Era that believed happiness through the pursuit of pleasure is the goal of life.
Greek mathmatician who is the "Father of Geometry"
Professional teachers in ancient Greece who traveled from city to city to teach others and believed that people should use knowledge to improve themselves. Developed speech and debate (how to win an arguement). Did not believe in gods or goddesses.
Philosopher and developer of a way of teaching that used a question-and-answer format to force students to use their reason to see things for themselves.
Philosopher who did not believe democracy was a good system of government. Instead would have 3 sections of government: philospher kings as rulers, warriors to defend, and everyone else. He introduced the idea of being fair and just and letting women do the same things as men (education and jobs).
Philosopher who taught the idea of the "golden mean," that a person should do nothing in excess. He believed observation and comparison were necessary to gain the knowledge. Divided governments into three basic types of government (ruled by one person=monarch or tyrant; ruled by a few=oligarchy; ruled by many=democracy).
Alexander the Great
Conquered the Persian Empire and spread Greek culture throughout southwest Asia.
What did Greeks think their gods and goddesses were?
Gods controlled nature and shaped their lives
Followed philosophy of Epicurus in Helenistic Athens and believed happiness is goal of life, achieved by seeking pleasure. Avoided worry and stayed out of politics and public service.
Followed philosophy of Zeno in Helenistic Athens and believed happiness came from following reason, not emotion, and from doing one's duty.
Period when Greek language, ideas, and culture spread to non-Greek peoples of southwest Asia.
Best known example of classic Greek architecture (columns)
How far did Alexander's empire reach?
From Asia Minor (Greece), Syra and Egypt, to Southwest Asia as far as Pakistan and India.
City in Egypt built by Alexander to become a center of business and trade
system of government in which people gather at mass meetings to decide government matters (Athens)
an open area in the Greek city states that served as both a market and a meeting place
ancient Greek city-state, made up of a city and the surrounding countryside and run like an independent country
system of government in which citizens choose a smaller group to make laws and government decisions on their behalf (U.S.)
Persian king who divided the empire into 20 provinces known as satrapies