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Digital Marketing Study Guide
Terms in this set (29)
What is a keyword?
A particular word or phrase that describes the contents of webpage. Keywords are
intended to act as shortcuts that sum up an entire page. Keywords form part of a Web
page's metadata and help search engines match a page to with an appropriate search
query ; An informative word used in a information retrieval system to indicate the
content of a document. A word that acts like a code.
What is a long tail keyword? Are these good to use?
Long tail keywords are multiword phrases that are extended or more specific versions
of a core fat head term. They have lower search volume but they are often more relevant
and easier to rank for than more generic terms. One webpage can rank well for multiple
long tail terms and that can add up to a significant amount of traffic and drive
worthwhile revenues. Earrings is a fat head term with higher search volume, whereas
sterling silver earrings, gold earrings online are all examples of long tail keywords.
How do backlinks affect a website's ranking?
Backlinks are links from external sources pointing to that webpage . The list of backlinks
makes up what is known as the page profile. From this link profile, search engines
calculate a website's popularity. The more webpages cite a webpage, the more popular
the search engines consider that page to be.
The total number of backlinks is an important metric in determining popularity, but it is
merely one of several metrics a search engine considers when measuring a webpage's
popularity. The number of links a website is what counts. The number of links increase
Are links from specific domain extensions (ie .edu or .gov) worth more than others?
Why or why not?
Yes, not all links have the same value. Expertise matters, it is important to have backlinks
from credible sources. Examples of high value links are:news outlet, government stares
and college sites.
Is it ok to have links coming from spammy sites? How could that affect you? What can
It's not okay, you may be classified as Spam and your website can be in bad link
neighborhood. You should link your website only to reputable website and receiving
backlinks from reputable domains.
What is a search ad? What information do you need to create a search ad? What makes
a good search ad?
Search ad is an ad placed online on search engine queries. They are PPC - pay per click -
they show when you do a search on search engine. Usually they show in the top of site
of the search engine results page. You need a title (headline), description lines, the display
URL - shows when the ad is displayed on the SERPS and destination URL is the actual
url. You can also add ad extensions, which are like location, offers like coupons, shopping
star review, reservation extensions, call extensions.
What is a PLA?
Product listing Ads: In addition to text this ad type displays product images and prices in
addition to text (like when you search a product and it shows on top of the page or on
the top right side - it has the image and the price and the description and the website
listed below it).
How are you charged if you bid on a CPC - cost per click?
The amount an advertiser pays for each click is determined both by the company's bid -
what it tells the search engine its willing to pay per click) and by its competitors bids. It
is an automated auction platform. Advertisers place a bid on a keyword and the winning
bid gets the best ad location for searches on that keyword. However, the bid from each
advertisers is not the only factor. It is actually determined by three factors:
1. quality score
2. maximum cpc bid
3. expected impact of extensions and other ad formats to determine ad rank
The auction model Google uses is called a second-price auction. In a second price
auction, the winner does not pay what he bid but instead pays a penny more than the bid
of the next highest bidder.
1. Expected click through rate
2. Landing page experience - highly relevant, original content, easy to navigate, transparent
3. Ad relevance - analyzing language in your ad
4. Ad formats - shows information
AdRank - score is calculated
What is the formula to calculate click through rate? Conversion rate?
The formula to calculate the click through rate is: (clicks/impressions)x100=CTR. They
usually tend to be around 1%-4%.
-Conversion rate is the percentage of visitors to a site who make a purchase (if a retail
website). This is calculate as the number of buyers, divided by the numbers of visitors.
(# of buyers)/(# of visitors)
Be able to describe all of the the keyword matching techniques and symbols used
- Exact match: putting brackets around a keyword instructs google to show an ad on
when someone searches for that exact keyword with zero variation. Ads wont show for
unrelated searches but will also not show for close related searches.
- Phrase match: putting quotations around a keyword phrase directs google to show an
ad only when the searcher's query includes that exact phrase. Phrase match differs from
exact math because the search query can also include other keywords in the beginning
- Modified Broad Match: when you put a plus sign in front of +each +keyword you are
commanding google that you want your ad to show up every time someone searches for
those keywords, misspelling of those keywords and in any order with additional
keywords that can be before, after or in the middle of the phrase.
- Broad match: adding keywords to an account without any commands or modifying
characters. It directs google to show an ad on whichever keywords they deem relevant
to those keywords including synonyms.
Describe instances where you would INCREASE your CPC bid and instances where you
would DECREASE your CPC bid on any given keyword.
The keywords that lead to most sales with the best margins deserve the most budget.
Keywords with lower profit margins should not be allocated budget that could go to
better performing keywords.
Name some ways that you can increase your return on ad spending.
What Amy said:with a higher quality score a company will end up paying less per click, which will
decrease the total ad spend.
The return on ad spending is calculated by taking the total revenue and dividing that
number by the total spent on advertising then multiplying by 100.
(total revenue/total adspend)x100 =ROAS
Google defines quality score along with bidding amount to determine where a
company's ad will appear. Google define's quality score as a measurement of how
relevant your ads, keywords and landing page are to a person seeing your ad. Higher
quality scores can lead to lower prices and better ad positions. Make sure you have a
well written ad that seems to generate more clicks, make sure your ad is relevant and
the key words that the advertiser bid on are used on the ad and landing page and make
sure you don't have a frequent bouncing rate, and therefore ensure a good quality
It is important to determine what the ROAS will be so you won't end up losing money.
You need to make sure your ad is good and has:
Enticing and unique value proposition (UVP)
Obvious call to action (CTA)
Name types of bidding in an ad network
1. Set bids manually: this option gives an advertiser full control over what his maximum
CPC bid is for each individual keyword.
2. adwords automatically sets bids for the advertiser: all the advertiser has to do is
tell google the maximum amount he is willing to pay for a click, and adwords sets the
individual keyword bids. It uses historical data and algorithms to maximize the number of
clicks an advertiser gets each day based on that bid and budget.
3. For the two above bid types, advertiser can enable enhanced CPC bidding, which
give adwords the ability to automatically increase bids by 30% for clicks that seem more
likely to lead to conversions and lower bids for clicks that seem less likely to convert.
4. Cost per acquisition: the advertiser specifies his target CPA and the search engine
automatically sets bids and adjusts bids across all of the advertiser's keywords to reach
5. Flexible bid strategy: it combines bid optimization with a selection of settings that
you control and can be applied across campaigns, ad groups, and keywords. Advertisers
who want to take advantage of the power and easer of automated bidding while
malignant customization, flexibility and control.
6. Daily budget: set aside daily budget for each campaign, once you reach your average
daily budget your ads will stop showing.
7. Ad extensions: google chooses where and when to show a company's ad extensions.
Name the various types of targeting available on Google Ad network and the instances
in which you would use them:
1.Keyword Targeting - Placing online display ads based on keywords similar to running
search ads BUT instead of an ad showing up when someone searches for on the
keywords, it shows up on webpages that use the selected key word
2. Interest Targeting - shows ads to web user who have a given interest regardless of
the webpage. The ad network infers web users' interests based on their past browsing
3. Topic Targeting - shows ads based on the topic of the website, but rather than
match keywords, the site just matches broad topic being targeted.
4. Placement Targeting - if an advertiser knows a specific website he would like to
advertise on; he can simply choose to buy ads on that site via placement targeting.
Be able to describe the different types of landing pages and the instances in which you
would use them.
- Subscription Landing pages. A media website makes more money as traffic increases
and one way to increase traffic is to sign visitors up for subscriptions. They use pop up
windows (overlays) to ask the visitors to subscribe or they will run an ad to drive traffic
to the new content with a prevalent call to action inviting them to subscribe.
- Long-Copy Landing pages. Some products require an extended explanation either
because the product is not well known or because it is a complicated product that
requires a through description. Selling those products online requires a long-copy landing
page, which includes enough information to provide the complicated explanation
necessitated by the product. It contains bold and large calls to action. Informercials of
- Single-product landing pages. If a company advertises a specific product (in an ad or
email) the landing page should be all about that same product. Within seconds of hitting
this landing page visitors should see: product image, unique value proposition, call to
action, how to proceed and familiar color scheme and logo.
- Multi-Product landing pages. If a company advertises a product category, like
discounted shoes, anyone who clicks that ad should arrive at a landing page featuring
multiple products from this category. They should see the product image, unique value
proposition, call to action, how to proceed and familiar color scheme and logo, but the
challenge is to find the best way to display multiple products without giving the visitor
information overload. Prioritize the order of products so make sure the best sellers and
products with best margins show first. Make sure products are visible above the fold, so
nobody has to scroll down. It is helpful to include a product search visitor so they can
find the product they had in mind.
- Multi-Category Landing pages. It is common when the product type has enough
variation that people are likely to have a general category preferences even if they don't
have a product preference. Helping website visitors refine their preferences before
exposing them to products can be beneficial for conversion.
- Lead-generation landing pages. Most lead-generation sites want visitors to either call
in or fill out an email form. Thus a landing page should show phone number prominently
in the upper fold, typically with a call to action. Performing A/B tests on landing pages
using different value propositions, calls to action, buttons, images, form placement, phone
number placement and trust symbols can help a company find the perfect combination
to increase conversions.
Describe A/B testing and tool you can use for it
A/B testing involves creating two versions of an ad, showing both at random across the
ad network and allowing the numbers to determine which ad is more effective. You can
use the analytics package to calculate how much revenue the ads generated and the
return on ad spend, that will allow us to track the ad effectiveness making A/B testing
Describe what a cookie is and where and how it is used (for good or bad) :
A cookie is a unique identifier that a website places on a user's computer during one of
your searches so that the website can remember you. Though some privacy advocates
attribute sinister intentions to these cookies, cookies are typically used to tailor the
website experience to each user.
For example, when you go on amazon, they place a cookie on your computer so they
can better recommend you products based on your browsing and purchase experience.
Where does paid and unpaid referral traffic come from? What is the difference between
Website referral traffic means an internet user clicks on a link to the site from another
Paid referral traffic comes from banner, text, or rich media ads that a website has paid
to display on other websites.
Unpaid Referral traffic refers to any visitors that come to the website from any links
that are not paid for, for example an article that talks about a product and adds the link
to the products website.
How do various sites measure engagement?
Retail: For retail websites, they attempt to entice visitors to engage in profitable
behaviors. A visitors who creates an account on the site is more likely to come
back and make purchases later. They can also send them more email about
products so they try to get them to sign up for their mailing list. Some websites
you can sign up for a premium membership etc.
◦ Media: For media websites engagement means getting more page views typically
by encouraging visitors to view more pages within a visit.
◦ Social Media: Users must create account to begin using the platform, engagement
happens when users interact with the content (like, retweet, pin something) or
create content ( post stuff).
◦ Marketplace: Websites like eBay and Craigslist. They provide a platform for
buyers and sellers to come together for these exchanges, sellers have to post
something for sale and buyers need to buy that stuff. Account creation is also
◦ Lead Generation: They can provide lead form on their website, so potential
costumers could fill out their contact information for them to contact them later.
-> doubt if that is engagement
◦ Search Engine: Google and Bing make money when a user clicks on the ads.
Sites like Expedia make money when somebody makes a booking. They can ask
users to sign up for emails to receive offers. -> doubt if that is engagement
◦ Affiliate Marketing: Visitors click on one of their affiliate links and buy
something on the destination website.
Name three performance measures to evaluate the success of a website
1- Generate traffic (visitors to the site) / 2- Drive conversions (entice visitors to engage
in some type of desired behavior) / 3- Generate revenue
Understand the history of Internet search site, starting with Yahoo's structure. Be able to
describe why it was limiting.
In 1994, internet was composed of a small number of websites created and managed by
a few savvy programmers and hobbyists. The problem was that there was no good way
to find the content. The first popular method of finding content on the internet was not
through a search engine but through lists or directories of popular, high quality websites,
organized by subject matter. Yahoo was created when Jerry's Yang's personal website
listing his favorite websites increasingly became the portal through which internet users
discovered new content online. -> If was in the format of a list, divided by categories.
THE PROBLEM: a list had to be painted manually and it was slow to improve and
incorporate new content. A list of websites by topic can only cover broad, popular topics
which makes the list useless for anyone looking for information on very focused, narrow
BUT THEN... Yahoo added a search bar. Still search engine algorithms (rules and
computations - what order pages should appear) the results were given entirely based
on how well the search phrase matched the content of the website.
GOOGLE CAME ALONG... in 1998. Its algorithm was based on relevance - how well
the phrase matched the content and popularity(page rank) - how many other webpages
link to the webpage and how reputable those linking pages are. The results of google
were relevant and high quality.
TODAY... Google makes up almost 70% of search engine market share.
Google has had several iterations of it's own search engine. Be able to explain the key
highlights of each and (briefly) how the subsequent versions tackled any issues (like black
There was an issue with page rank formula because black-hat techniques (manipulative,
google discouraged methods to increase popularity) could be easily used to inflate a
page rank. People could program a computer to automatically create a thousand of
webpages pointing to a particular target page. They could also hack other websites and
hiding backlinks in the code or just purchasing links from other websites. The top 3
largest algorithm updates: Panda, Penguin and Pigeon.
Penguin Update: Google found that websites with over-optimized anchor text were
often manufacturing these backlinks (using black-hat techniques to generate links).
Google penguin penalized websites with over-optimized anchor text (clickable text/
Pigeon Update: it improved Google's local search results. It used better metrics to
gauge the location of the searcher and it also began incorporating more quality signals to
determine the rank order of the local result.
List 6 changes that happened during the Panda update
1. Penalty for heavy ad footprint. Panda heavily penalized webpages with lots of spaces
dedicated to advertising instead of content.
2. Duplicate content. Google penalized pages that served content that was identical to
content found somewhere else. Google wants to give users original source not copies.
3. Thin content. Google focus groups found that users preferred pages with a greater
quantity of content, so websites with little content received a penalty.
4. Content freshness. The steady addition of new content to a website is a positive
indicator of the site's quality so it receives a ranking boost.
5. Social Signals. Though the influence of social media websites on webpages rankings
began before the Panda update, panda further strengthened the influence.
6. Grammar. Google found that poor grammar was a reliable indicator that the website
had poor quality, so the more mistakes like typos and grammatical errors the lower they
7. User behavior. If a google user clicks on a webpage from the search engine results
page (SERP) and then immediately hits the back button, google interprets that as if the
website didn't provide relevant content for the user. If the website does a lot of that
behavior, the webpage rank will go down.
8. Outbound links. Traditionally a webpage only received credit for the links that
pointed to it, but panda update also have credit to a webpage if it linked to reputable
content, because it showed it was less likely to engage in manipulative practices.
What are Google's organic rankings (organic search results are the ones that were not
paid for) based on? (two factors)
Page Rank / Page popularity and relevance.
What is anchor text? What is over-optimized anchor text?
A search engine uses the anchor text from external links as an objective, third party
description of a webpage. When linking one page to another within the website, develops
should use the linked to page's target keywords phrase as the anchor text of that link.
Over-optimized anchor text is for many websites a high proportion of the backlinks
utilized anchor text that perfectly targeted their desirable keywords.
In other words:
Clickable text that leads to another webpage. When linking from one page to another
within the website, developers should use the linked-to page's target keyword phrase as the
anchor text of that link.
Over-optimizing anchor texts is building too many links with targeted anchor text that
they no longer provide value
Do the words on a web page carry different weights? Why? (think, Headers vs. content)
Yes they do. The words along with the URL receives heavy weighting in calculating
relevance so a webpage should have the target keyword phrase in its title tag. Also,
inside a header tag receive more weight in relevance calculation so the target keyword
phrase should be in the header. In the content, the word should be used several times,
however, it needs to be strategically. The phrase should only be used when it makes
sense and it cannot be used too often. It should be about 3% to 5% of the word count
on the page.
Explain what having a deep web structure means and does it benefit or hurt a website's
search engine rankings
Having a deep web structure is having many pages within a site. Search engine crawlers
must continually crawl and update information about billions of webpages. A search
engine likely will not bother to crawl a page that is more than four levels deep in a site,
because it is unlikely to ever rank for a search of any significant volume. Thus a website
should be organized hierarchically with no more than four levels:home page - category
pages - subcategories - product pages. More important than the number of pages is the
number of clicks it takes to get to that page.
If a website is selling shoes, specifically Nike Green Running Shoes, name places on the
web page we should find those keywords to optimize for SEO
On the URL, Title tag ( shows up at the top of the browser), on header tags, 3% to 5%
on main content, on image alt and file name, on anchor text.
How can a website improve CTR - click through rate?
A website can influence its click through rate through the title tag (a good one should
identify the brand of the site and use the target keyword. By using the keyword on the
title tag, the word gets bolded when users search for it and it should increase the ctr),
meta data description (should clearly and accurately describe the content of the page so
users can identify wether the page will provide the content they seek) and the choice of
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