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Arts and Humanities
World History Chapter 04 Terms
Terms in this set (85)
Thus body of water is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey
One of the earliest Greek cultures; located in Mainland Greece; conquered the Minoans to dominate the Aegean Sea. Later, led by King Agamemnon.
Known as one of the great poets of all time, and the author of the wll known texts the Illiad and The Odyssey. A significant figure in Greek history because his texts were used as primary teaching methods to generations of Greek males. By teaching his work, it was believed the important values of courage and honor would be engraved into the generations.
In myth, the war between the Greeks and the ancient city of Illium. The subject of Homer's great epic, The Iliad.
This famous poem by Homer recounts the Trojan War, or war of Ilium
A famous epic tale about the Trojan War and Odysseus' story about his 10 year voyage back to home. Written by Homer and it was one of his most famous books written around 750 B.C and 650 B.C.
He is the king of Mycenae or Argos and commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War. His quarrel with Achilles in portrayed in The Illiad.
The Greek hero who was the main character of the epic poem The Illiad by Homer. He supposidly was killed by an arrow to his heel, the only vulnerabe part of his body.
a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem of the Odyssey. He plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in that same epic cycle.
A character in the Iliad and was the symbol of a good warrior. Son of King Priam; killed by Achilles in an epic battle.
Located on the northwestern coast of Asia Minor. This city was sacked, or plundered, by the Mycenaen Greeks.
Meaning Greece in the Greek language.
She is the wife of the king of the Greek state of Sparta, Menelaus, whos abduction by Paris to Troy was the original cause of the Trojan War. Hers was the face that "launched a thousand ships." Proverbially, the most beautiful of all women.
It is a form of poetry in which a story about the deeds of a great hero is told; they are usually pretty long. The Illiad and the Odyssey are two examples.
form of poetry in which a certain emotion or feeling is expressed; usually "sung" or recited to the accompaniment of a small harp.
Greek Dark Age
is the interval between the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, around 1200 BCE, and the Greek Archaic Period, around 800 BCE.
Greek term for "excellence" or "virtue"
a city state in ancient Greece, especially as considered in its ideal form for philosophical purposes.
The fortified region of the polis, used as a place for refuge during an attack and was sometimes used as a religious center. The region is significant because the Greeks took in the possibilities of being attacked, and created a shelter which would protect its people well.
the marketplace or business center in a Greek town
adult males who are full members with all the rights of a Greek polis
A famous Greek philosopher and scientist. He was the student of Plato; one of the very first natural scientists who made sytematic researches in to all natural forms. He is very significant because he was known as the teacher of Alexander the Great.
The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. Literally, "the love of wisdom".
These were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
The center of Greek civilization for some 400 years. This is the capital of modern Greece, it's still dominated by 5th-century-B.C.E. landmarks, including the Acropolis.
The Greek city-state that became a military state and had an oligarchy government. They avoided contact with the outside world to discourage new ideas amd studying the arts. Its rival city-state was Athens.
A wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation. If they kept this formation, it was hard for enemies to harm them.
the establishment of these lead to the spread of culture, political ideas, and an increase of trade and industry in the Mediterranean. Byzantium was an important one, later becoming Constantinople.
This person is a ruler who seized power be force from the aristocrats, gained support from the newly rich and the poor, and maintained power by using hired soldiers and fighting tactics. They are significant because they abuse their power and are very selfish. But, when they got a lot of money, they would build things to make the cities very nice. Often, this form of government paved the way for democracy.
a professional soldier who fights for pay, not patriotism
the form of government by the ordinary male citizens themselves; in the ancient world, it was dorectly by the people, without representatives.
a small group of wealthy people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
a member of a class of serfs in ancient Sparta, intermediate in status between slaves and citizens
in modern usage, it means "austere", or "without anything fancy"; based on the lifestyles of this polis in Ancient Greece
An aristocratic Athenian reformer who freed people who had fallen in debt. He abolished debt slavery and helped found some self-government in Athens. Traditionally, one of the "wise men" of Anvient Greece.
an Athenian tyrant who governed Athens just before it became a democracy
This man took over Athens from Peisistratus and established an assembly to discuss political matters; founder of the world's first democracy.
where the citizens would gather to make the most important decisions for the city
The common people of an acient Greek polis.
The area along the Mediterranean coast of modern-day Turkey where many Greeks moved to colonize.
Battle of Marathon
Took place during the first Persian invasion in Greece. It was fought between the citizens of Athens and a Persian force; the Grrek style of hoplite battle shocked the Persian king and led to an Athenian victory over the Persians.
A series of battles between Persia and the Greek city-states from 490 B.C. to 479 B.C. Athens, Spartans, and other Greeks united to defeat the Persians.
He became the new Persian monarch after Darius died. He had a plan to invade Greece. To do so, he used many troops and thousands of supply vessels and warships.
A Athenian who was a non-aristocratic politician and general. Led Athens to victory against the Persians at the Battle of Salamis during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
Battle of Thermopylae
This was the first battle between the Greeks and the Persians during the second Persian invasion of 480-479 BC. This was important because the Greeks wanted to prove that the Persians could be defeated. The Spartans made a famous last stand against a huge Persian force. "Remember the Spartans!"
Battle of Salamis
It was a major naval battle between the Persians and an alliance between all the Greek city-states. The Greeks destroyed most of the Persian fleet near Athens.
Battle of Plataea
A battle in 479 BCE during the Persian Wars. in this battle, the Persians were defeated by the Greeks in the city of Plataea
History of the Persian Wars; Herodotus
considered the first work of Greek history; attempted to tell the story from both sides.
a political alliance, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150 to 173, under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire
Golden Age of Greece
the period of Greek history between the Persian War and the Peloponesian Wars, when Greek culture--especially Athens--was at its height
The period of time when the Athenian Empire expanded and flourished. Classical Greece is significant because this period highlights the new control over the Persian empire to benefit the Greeks.
Age of Pericles
period of Athenian history between the fall of Persia and the wars between Athens and Sparta.
A system of government in which the citizens make the laws for themselves
In ancient Greece the temporary banishment from a city decided by vote.
A temple on the Athenian Acropolis dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
An ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Spartans and its allies. Lasted thirty years and resulted in the defeat of Athens.
Pericles' Funeral Oration
famous speech by the leader of Athens in honor of the citizens who dies defending the city. He spoke about the greatness of Athens and the strength of its political system.
History of the Peolponnesian War; Thucydides
great work of history on the wars between Athens and Sparta that lasted for 30 years; considered to be the first "scientific" work of history; written by an exiled Athenian general while the wars were still being fought.
These religious figures were very important to Greek life, considered necessary to the well-being of the state. These 12 religious figures were thought to live on the highest peak in Greece.
Mt. Olympus/Olympic Games
This is the highest mountain in Greece. These celebrations were held in honor of Zeus at this location.
It is a shrine used to communicate with a god or goddess through a priest or priestess. The most famous of these religious figures lived at this remote location in the Greek mountains. It was very popular among the people all over the Mediterranean world.
Greeks sculptor of the 5th century famous for sculptures of male athletes
Greek dramatic tragedies
The Athenian invented this form of drama where the antagonist brings about his own destruction.
The first of the great Athenian playwrights; his trilogy of plays about Agamemnon's return to Mycenae after the Trojan War, his murder, and the revenge of his son, known as "The Orestia" is a great classic of world literature.
considered by many to be the greatest of the Athenian playwrights; his dramas about Oedipus and Antigone are admired by many for their profound commentary on the human condition.
this Athenian playwright emphasized psychology and his plays have a more modern feel; famous for such plays as The Bacchae, about the profound impact the god Dionysus had on the Greeks, disturbing their emphasis on moderation and self-control with a burst of wild passion and excess.
Athenian playwrite famous for his bawdy comedies that satirized the powerful and famous people of his day by name; "Lysistrata", about how the womem of Athens and Sparta go on sexual strike to force their husbands to quit their wars against each other, is particularly famous and funny.
a group of travelling teachers who promised to make their pupils skilled leaders able to make the weaker argument sound better than the stronger
the art of persuading through words; a teacher of such art
He was famous for questioning the leaders and famous men of Greece to defend their knowledge; he discussed philosophical questions about the best way of life through discussion and dialogue
a follower of Socrates; He was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece. Considered one of the first and greatest philosophers in world history; wrote dialogues featuring the life of his teacher Socrates. "The Republic" is his most famous work; it is about the best form of government and educational system.
Plato's The Republic
a socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BCE concerning the definition of justice
A Greek philosopher who challenged Plato's theories of ideal forms. This philosopher believed that you should analyze and classify things based on observation and investigation. He wrote about ethics, politics, and poetry.
Great work of philospphy by Aristotle about how to achieve happiness and a good life.
Great work of political philosophy by Aristotle; about the best forms of government for different circumstances and how to achieve a just, fair community.
This was an ancient, powerful kingdom in the northern part of Greece. Alexander the Great became king of this kingdom.
He was a Macedonianian who became king in 359 B.C. He took over the Greek world and used his powerful state build a powerful army and turned Macedonia into the head of power within the Greek city- states. He forced the Greeks to fight with him in a war against Persia. He was also the father of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great
the king of Macedon during 336-323 BCE, conquerer of Persia, Egypt Syria, Bactria and Mesoptamia, and the Punjab, founder of the city of Alexandria in Egypt.
his empire extended from Greece to India.
The Hellenistic Age is a period in history defined as the time between the death of Alexander the Great and the rise of Roman domination.
a great ancient city on the Mediterranean coast founded and builr by the Greeks as part of their empire
A mathematician who wrote the Elements, a textbook on plane geometry. His teachings are still being used today, forming the basis of all high school geometry. He perfected the art of creating logical proofs for all his statements.
the greatest ancient scientist who applied mathematics to the study of nature; anticipated the branch of modern mathematics known as calculus.
Ancient philosopher and his followers who believed that happiness was based on a quiet, retired life based on pleasure
Ancient school of philosophy that believed happiness was best gained by learning to withstand pain and overcoming suffering; avoiding emotion
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