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189 terms

Chapter 6 Anatomy and Physiology

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abductors
muscles that seprate the fingers
adductors
muscles at the base of each finger that draws the fingers together
anabolism
the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones
anatomy
the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts
angular artery
artery that supplies blood to the side of the nose
anterior auricular artery
artery that supplies blood to the front part of the nose
aponeurosis
tendon that connects the occiptalis and the frontalis
arteries
thick walled muscular and flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries throughout the body
artium
one of the two upper chambers of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles (plural: atria)
auricularis anterior
muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward
auricularis posterior
muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backwards
auricularis superior
muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward
auricolutemporal nerve
nerve that affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull
autonomic nervous system
part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels and heart
axon
the process, or extension of a neuron by which impluses are sent away from the body of the cell
belly (muscle)
middle part of the muscle
biceps
muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper wall
blood
nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues and to remove carbon dioxide and waste form them
blood vascular system
group of structures that distribute blood throughout the body
brain
part of the centeral nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles glandular activity and the power to think and feel
buccal nerve
nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth
buccinator
thin flat muscle of the chek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips
capillaries
thin walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins
cardiac muscle
the involuntary muscle that is the heart
carpus
the wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small irregular bones held together by ligaments
catabolism
the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the release of energy to perform functons such as muscular efforts, secretions or digestion
cell membrane
part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell
cells
basic units of all living things; minute masses of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life
central nervous system
cerebrospinal nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nervers and cranial nerves
cervical cutaneous nerve
nerve located at the side of the neck that affects the front and side of the neck as far down as th breastbone
cervical nerve
nerve that affects the side of the neck and the platysma muscle
cervical vertebrae
the seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region
circulatory system
controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart ahd blood vessels
clavicle
collarbone; bone joining the sternum and the scapula
common carotid arteries
supply bloos to the face head and neck
connective tissue
fibrous tissue that binds together, protects and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilageand tendons
corrugator
facial muscle that draws the eyebrows down and wrinkles the forehead vertically
cranium
oval, bony case that protects the brain
cytoplasm
the watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self repair of the cell
deltoid
large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder jointthat allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body
dendrites
tree like branch nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell
depressor labii inferioris
muscle surrounding the lower lip and draws it to one side, also known as the quadratus labii inferioris
diaphragm
muscular wall that seprates the thorax from the the abdominal region and helps control brathing
digestive system
change food into nutrients and wastes
digit
a finger or a toe
digital nerve
nerve that with its branches supplies the fingers and toes
endocrine glands
ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream
endocrine system
grou[ of specialized glands that affect growth, development, sexual actvities, and health of entire body
epicranius
broad muscle that covers the top of the skull; also called occipito frontalis
epithelial tissue
protective covering on body surfaces such as skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs and glands
excretory system
group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter
exhalation
the act of breathing outward, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs
exocrine glands
glands that produce a substance that travels through small tubelike ductsm such as the sudoriferous (sweat) glands and the sebaceous (oil) glands
extensors
muscles that straighten the wrist, hand and fingers to form a straight line
external carotid artery
that supplies blood to the anterior parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck and side of head
external jugular vein
located on the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head face and neck
facial artery
supplies blood to the lower region of the fac, mouthand nose; also called the maxillary artery
fifth cranial nerve
cheif sensory nerve of the face; controls chewing, also known as trifacial or trigeminal nerve
flexors
extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in flexing the wrist
frontal artery
supplies blood to forehead and upper eyelid
frontal bone
bone forming the forehead
frontalis
front portion of the epicranium; muscle of the scalp
glands
specialized organs that remove certain constituents form the blood to convert them into new compounds
greater auricular nerve
nerve at the side of the neck affecting the face ears neck and parotid gland
greaer occipital nerve
located in the back of the head affecting the scalp
heart
mscular cone shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system
hemoglobin
coloring matter of the blood; the oxygen carrying pigment in the blood and iron containing protein in red blood cells
histology
science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy
hormones
secretion produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the blood stream or body fluid to another part of the body or a body organ to stimulate functional activity or secretion
humerus
uppermost and largesdt bone on the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder
hyoid
U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles also called the "Adam's apple"
inferior labial artery
supplies blood to the lower lip
infraorbital artery
originates from the maxillary artery and supplies blood to the muscles of the eye
infraorbital nerve
nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of nose, upper lip and mouth
infratrochlear nerve
nerve that affects to membrane and skin of the nose
inhalation
the breathing in of air
insertion
parts of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skelton
integumentary system
the skin and its accessiry organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors hair and nails
internal jugular vein
vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck
internal carotid artery
supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nosem and internal ear
joint
connection between two or more bones of the skelton
lacrimal bones
small, thin bones located in the anterior medial wall of the orbits (eye sockets)
latissimus dorsi
broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controllong the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm
levator labil superioris
muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste; also known as quadratus labii superioris
levator anguli oris
muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward, also known as caninus
liquid tissue
body tissue that carriers food, waste products, and hormones by means of blood and lymph
lungs
organs of respiration; spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one respiratory cycle
lymph
cler yellowish fluid tht circulates in the lymph spaces of the body; carries waste ad impurities away form the cells
lymph nodes
glandlike bodies in the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph
lymph vascular system
acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph glands
mandible
lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face
mandibular nerve
banch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face, also nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip
masseter
one of the muscles of the jaw used for chewing
maxillae
bones of the upper jaw
maxillary nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face
median nerve
smaller than the ulnar and radial nerves that supplies the arm and hand
mentalis
muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin
mental nerve
affects the skin of the lower lip and chin
metabolism
chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities
metacrpus
bones of the palm of the hand; containing five bones between the carpus and the phalanges
middle temporal artery
supplies blood to the temples
mitosis
cells dividing into two new cells; the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues
mixed nerves
nerves that contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to send and receive messages
motor (efferent) nerves
carry impluses fronm the brain to the muscles
muscular system
body system that covers, shapes and supports the skelton tissue, contracts and moves various parts of the body
muscular tissue
tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body
myology
science of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles
nasal bones
bones that form the bridge of the nose
nasal nerve
nerve that affects the point and lower sides of the nose
nerve
whitish cord made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted
nerve tissue
tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions
nervous system
body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently
neuron
nerve cell; basic unit of the neervous system, consiting of a cell body, nucleus, dendrites and axon
neurology
science and structure , function, and pathology of the nervous system
nonstriated muscles
also called involuntary, visceral, of smooth muscles, muscles that function automatically without conscious will
nucleus
dense, active protoplasm found i the center of the cell; plays an important part on cell reproduction and metabolism
occipital bone
hindmost bone of the skull, located below the parietal bones
occipitalis
back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward
ophthalmic nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball and nasal passage
opponent muscls
muscles in the palm that act to bring the thumb toward the fingers
orbicularis oculi
the ring muscle of the eye socket closes the eyelid
orbicularis oris
flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers and wrinkles the lips
organs
in plants and animals, structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions
origin
part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skelton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle
os
bone
osteology
science of the anatomy, structure and function of the bones
parietal artery
artery that supplies the blood to the side and crown of head
parietal bones
bones that form the sides and top of the cranium
pectoralis major and minor
muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arms
pericardium
double layeed membranous sac enclosing the heart
peripheral nervous system
system of nervesand ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system, has both sensory and motor nerves
phalanges
bones of the fingers or toes (singular: phalanx)
physiology
study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures
plasma
fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells
platelets
blood cells that aid in the forming of clots
platysma
broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for depressing the lower jaw and lip
posterior auricular artery
supplies blood to the scalp, behind and above the ear
posterior auricular nerve
affects the muscles behind the ear and at the base of the skull
procerus
muscle that covers the bridge of the nose, depesses the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose
pronators
muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward
protoplasm
colorless jelly like substance in cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water are present
pulmonary circulation
blood circulation from heart to lungs and back to heart
radial artery
supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand; supplies the muscles of the skin, hands and fingers, wrist, elbow and forearm
radial nerve
supplies the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand
radius
smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb
red blood cels
also called red corpuscles or erythrocytes, blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells and transport carbon dioxide from cells back to the lungs
reflex
automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord and a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction
reproductive system
body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring
respiration
act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen that takes place in the lungs between the bloos and cells and within the cell
respiratory system
body system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables breathing supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide as a waste product
ribs
a 12 pair of bones forming the wall of the thorax
risorius
muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back as in grinning
scapula
large , flat triangular bone of the shoulder
sensory (afferent) nerve
nerves that carry implses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain and pressure are experienced
serratus anterior
muscle of the chest that assits in breathing and in raising the arm
seventh (facial) cranial nerve
chief motor nerve of the face, emerging near the lower part of the ear
skeletal system
physical foundation of the body, composed of the bones and movable and immovable joints
smaller (lesser) occipital nerve
nerve located at the base of the skull, affecting the scalp and muscles behind the ear
spinal cord
portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and its protected by the spinal column
sternocleidomastoideus
muscle of the neck that depresses and rotates the head
sternum
the flat bone or breastbone that forms the ventral support of the ribs
striated muscles
voluntary muscles that are controlled by will
submental artery
artery that supplies blood to the chin and lower lip
superficial temporal artery
supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side, and top of the head
superior labial artery
supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose
supraorbital artery
supplies blood to the upper eyelid and forehead
supraorbital nerve
nerve that affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid
supratrochlear nerve
nerve that affects the skin between the eyes and the upper side of the nose
supinator
muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward
systems
comprised of a group of organs acting together to perform one or more functions
systemic circulation
circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart, also called general circulation
temporal bones
bones forming the sides of the head in the ear region
temporal nerve
nerve that affects the muscles of the temple, side of forehead, eyebrows, eyelid, and upper part of the cheek
temporalis
temporal muscle; one of the muscles involved in mastication (chewing)
thorax
the chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs
tissue
collection of similar cells that perform a particular function
transverse facial artery
artery that supplies blood to the masseter
trapezius
muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arms
triangularis
muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth
triceps
large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm
ulna
inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger
ulna artery
supplies blood to the muscle of the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand
ulna nerve
nerve that affects the little finger side of the arn and the palm of the hand
valve
structures that temporarily closes a passage, or permit flow in one direction
veins
thin walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; they contain cup like valves to prevent backflow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart and lungs
ventricle
one of the two chambers of the heart
white blood cells
blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease causing germs; also called white corpuscles or leukocytes
zygomatic or malar bones
bones that form the prominence of the cheeks; the cheekbones
zygomaticus
muscle extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth, elevates the lip as in laughing