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as a result of a treatment or diagnostic procedure


difficult or labored breathing


difficulty in swallowing or inability to swallow


type of dyspnea in which breathing is easier when the patient sits or stands

orthostatic hypertension

temporary fall in BP associated with assuming an upright position


inadequate amount of oxygen available to the cells


deficient oxygenation of blood

parenteral route

injecting drug
- Administered or occurring elsewhere in the body than the mouth and alimentary canal.
- central line/PICC


strong, dense, flexible bands of connective tissue that hold bones to bones


strong, nonelastic cords of collagen located at the ends of muscles to attach them to bones


semismooth, gel-like supporting tissue that is strong & able to support weight


a neurological condition in which language function is absent or severely impaired


absence of breathing


painful or difficult urination


Administered or occurring elsewhere in the body than the mouth and alimentary canal.


total parenteral nutrition
- Central line/PICC


- The excessive passage of urine (at least 2.5 liters per day for an adult) resulting in profuse urination and urinary frequency (the need to urinate frequently)
- Polyuria is a classic sign of diabetes mellitus that is under poor control or is not yet under treatment


Increased or excessive production of urine


any subjective sensation, experienced as numbness, tingling, or a "pins and needles" feeling


pertaining to the area of the face around the mouth


the involuntary contraction of muscles


- An arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart rate (pulse) or heart rhythm, such as beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.
- An irregularity in the force or rhythm of the heartbeat


An abnormality in an otherwise normal rhythmic pattern, (irregular heartbeat) as of brain waves being recorded by an electroencephalograph.

loop diuretic

- A class of diuretic agents that act by inhibiting reabsorption of sodium and chloride & promote sodium & potassium excretion
- a high-potency therapeutic agent used to control hypertension by exerting influence on the loop of Henle in order to facilitate the removal of surplus water and sodium from the body


is a progressive deterioration of nerves that results in loss of nerve function

peripheral vascular disease

is a disease in which plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs


An inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, esp. the heart muscles

activated partial thromboplastin time

- it is a performance indicator measuring the efficacy of both the "intrinsic" and the common coagulation pathways. Apart from detecting abnormalities in blood clotting, it is also used to monitor the treatment effects with heparin, a major anticoagulant.
- It is used in conjunction with the prothrombin time (PT) which measures the extrinsic pathway

ACE Inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme
-Block the action of the angiotensin-converting enzyme as it attempts to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II, one of the most powerful vasoconstrictors in the body --> as a result, the vessels constrict less, which helps control BP

ACE inhibitor

medications that slow (inhibit) the activity of the enzyme ACE, which decreases the production of angiotensin II. As a result, the blood vessels enlarge or dilate, and blood pressure is reduced.

Calcium channel blockers

lower BP by interfering with the transmembrane flux of calcium ions. This results in vasodilation, which decreases BP

Calcium Channel Blockers

1. By dilating the arteries, CCBs reduce the pressure in the arteries. This makes it easier for the heart to pump blood, and, as a result, the heart needs less oxygen. By reducing the heart's need for oxygen, CCBs relieve or prevent angina. CCBs also are used for treating high blood pressure because of their blood pressure-lowering effects
2. CCBs are as effective as ACE inhibitors in reducing blood pressure, but they may not be as effective as ACE inhibitors in preventing the kidney failure caused by high blood pressure or diabetes

Beta blockers

block beta receptors in the heart and peripheral vessels, reducing the cardiac rate & output --> decreasing heart rate and myocardial contractility

Beta Blockers

Beta blockers primarily block β1 and β2 receptors. By blocking the effect of norepinephrine and epinephrine, beta blockers reduce heart rate; reduce blood pressure by dilating blood vessels; and may constrict air passages by stimulating the muscles that surround the air passages to contract


abnormally small production of urine


an inability to urinate

pleural effusion

fluid in the pleural space


blood in the pleural space
-chest tube --> patient in high fowler 90 degrees


air in the pleural space
-chest tube --> patient in semi-fowler 30 degrees


not blocked, not obstructed


inflammation of a vein


escape of fluid into subcutaneous tissue
ex. dislodged needle, penetrate vessel wall


blood clot


a reduction in the number of blood platelets below the level needed for normal coagulation, resulting in an increased tendency to bleed

- penia



extreme body wasting and malnutrition that develops from an imbalance between food intake and energy use


Inflammation of the peritoneum (The peritoneum is the tissue layer of cells lining the inner wall of the abdomen and pelvis). Peritonitis can result from infection (such as bacteria or parasites), injury and bleeding, or diseases (such as systemic lupus erythematosus

acute diffuse peritonitis

an acute widespread attack of peritonitis affecting most of the peritoneum and usually caused by infection or by a perforation of an abdominal organ (e.g., stomach or appendix). It is also a complication of peritoneal dialysis.

H2 blockers

H2 blockers, also called H2-receptor antagonists, are medicines that reduce the amount of acid the stomach produces by blocking one important producer of acid: histamine2.
Ex. ranitidine [Zantac], famotidine [Pepcid]


An abnormal or surgically made passage between a hollow or tubular organ and the body surface, or between two hollow or tubular organs

Toxic megacolon

extreme dilation of segment of colon that results in a complete obstruction


passage of stools containing blood (as from diverticulosis or colon cancer or peptic ulcer).


(condition of) defecation, especially involving the discharge of foreign substances

Hepatic encephalopathy

- is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood
- aka Portal-systemic encephalopathy
- neurological symptoms
- altered LOC
- impaired thinking process


Liver flap or asterixis is related to increased serum ammonia levels. The dorsiflexed hands begin to flap upward and downward when outstretched for a few moments.


is the feeling of constantly needing to pass stools (or, in the less common sense, urine), even if the bowels (or bladder) are already empty. It can involve pain, straining, and cramping.


blood in the sputum

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)

intermittent dyspnea during sleep


shortness of breath that occurs when lying down but is relieved by sitting up.


the anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine when viewed from the side; a common finding in pregnancy & abdominal obesity


air trapped in and under the skin


the aspiration of pleural fluid or air from the pleural space


a collection of pus in the pleural space

subcutaneous emphysema

the presence of bubbles under the skin because of air trapping; an uncommon late complication of fracture


A state of unease or generalized dissatisfaction with life


ability to produce a desired or intended result


a substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor


- Cardiac tamponade occurs when the heart is squeezed by fluid that collects inside the sac that surrounds it.
- The heart is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium. When this sac becomes filled with fluid, the liquid presses on the heart, preventing the lower chambers of the heart from properly filling with blood.

Catheter ablation

Catheter ablation of an irregular heartbeat involves having a tube (a catheter) inserted into the heart through which electrical energy is sent to either reset the heartbeat or stop the heart from beating so a mechanical pacemaker can be put in place.

Sedimentation rate

The sedimentation rate (sed rate) blood test measures how quickly red blood cells (erythrocytes) settle in a test tube in one hour. The more red cells that fall to the bottom of the test tube in one hour, the higher the sed rate.

When inflammation is present in the body, certain proteins cause red blood cells to stick together and fall more quickly than normal to the bottom of the tube. These proteins are produced by the liver and the immune system under many abnormal conditions, such as an infection, an autoimmune disease, or cancer.


the loss of full control of bodily movements

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