Upgrade to remove ads
Media Theories and Effects
Terms for 10 chapters in the Media Theories and Effects textbook.
Terms in this set (52)
theory based on empirical observation guided by the scientific method
the study of understanding, especially through the systematic interpretation of actions or texts
theory-seeking transformation of dominant social order in order to achieve desired values
theory explaining how a media system should be structured and operate in order to conform to or realize a set of ideal social values
Features the massive orchestration of communication, persuades people without seeming to do so, and
emphasizes tricky language designed to discourage reflective thought
The Magic Bullet theory
Propaganda can easily overcome human defenses
Erie County "People's Choice" study
Paul Lazarsfeld performed monthly surveys of people influenced by media on voting situations. Media didn't have much influence on people.
A methodological innovator who discovered that there is no magic key to persuasion
Joseph Klapper's Reinforcement theory
People consume media that agree with their attitudes and beliefs
The Two-Step Flow theory
Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz's study of the decision-making processes of housewives in the Decatur (Ill.)
The Mass Entertainment theory
TV satisfies various psychological needs such as entertainment, passing time, and forgetting problems-offers an escape
Minimal Effects theories
The media have minimal effects on society
Critical Cultural Research Strategy
It focuses on audience uses and experiences with media, it explores changes in experience over time, and its theories address changes and consequences of media use.
The ideas of Marshall McLuhan
Argued that technology inevitably causes specific changes in: how society is structured, how people think and react to media, and how technology changes society.
"The medium is the message"
Societal changes resulting from technology are more important than media content
TV's effect on communities have mixed findings such as little evidence of literacy or social subversion and little evidence of undue passivity.
Effects of TV violence in the 1960s
Limited effects explanation. Public concern for increase of violence in cities and action for Children's TV.
Encompasses both imitation and identification to explain how people learn through observation of others in their environments.
Learning through interaction after observation.
TV violence reduces aggressiveness
The Aggressive Cues Theory
Information contained in media portrayals of violence that suggests the appropriateness of aggression against specific victims.
Bandura's bobo doll experiments
The collective name of experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 when he studied children's behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo doll.
Use of video games by children
Tied to negative behavior and effects.
The term for the corporate construction of childhood
Active Audience theories
Theories that focus on assessing what people do with media; audience-centered theories.
Uses and Gratifications
Approach to media study focusing on the uses to which people put media and the gratifications they seek from those uses.
Escape, diversion, relaxation, cultural or aesthetic enjoyment, filling time, emotional release, and pleasant or powerful emotions.
Relevant events, practical advice, curiosity, learning; self-education, and security through knowledge.
Personal Identity Gratification
Values reinforcement, behavior models of, character identification (role model), and self-understanding.
Wilbur Schramm's Fraction of Selection
Graphic description of how individuals make media and content choices based on expectation of reward and effort required.
Comparative market penetration of cell phone (mobile) television
Increasing in Asia and Europe, US - Confined to early adopters, and Mobile TV services are minimal.
Chief TV news gratification - entertainment. People watch the news station that reinforces their personal belief.
Mendelsohn's Mass Entertainment Theory
TV helps people satisfy various psychological needs, TV provides an "escape" for people, and If TV didn't exist, people would find other ways to satisfy their needs.
Developed 1960s, focus on Cognitive Effects, and focus on how and why learning does or does not take place.
Templates or cognitive structures built up as people interact with the environment in order to organize their experience.
Information Processing theories
All deal with how individuals process and make sense of the overwhelming amounts of information present even in the simplest media message.
The characteristics of the Spiral of Silence
Developed by Noelle Neumann, people avoid promoting unpopular candidates or viewpoints.
Focuses on individuals, not groups
Features drama and conflict
Fragments ignore larger context
Reinforces social order and status quo
The ability to access, analyze, evaluate and communicate
Media Intrusion Theory
Media erode social capital, media displaced political parties, nomination of Presidential candidates, articulation of issues and policies, and focus on images and personality, not issues.
Information Diffusion Theory
Theory that explains how innovations are introduced and adopted by various communities. Founded by Everett Rogers.
Social Marketing Theory
Collection of middle range theories concerning the promotion of socially valuable information.
Hierarchy of Effects
Practical theory calling for the differentiation of persuasive affect relative to the time and effort necessary for their accomplishment.
Media System Dependency Theory
Idea that the more a person depends on having needs gratified by media use, the more important the media's role will be in the person's life and, therefore, the more influence those media will have.
Knowledge Gap Hypothesis
Systematic differences in knowledge between better informed and less informed segments of a population.
stereotypes inevitable, useful.
Frames structure perception of world.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Mass Society Theory
JOUR 306 Final Exam
Comm 403 Exam Study Guide
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
PR Final (A Values-Driven Approach)
COMS 301 : Ch 11 Vocabulary
COMS 302 Ch9 : The Media Anti-Social Behavior
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Biology First Semester Exam Study Guide
Bio 216 Quiz 7 Material