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COM 229 Exam 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (127)
What does Marx say about power?
-critique reveals truths, leading to revolution
-looks at the relationship between power and social structure
What to Social Structures/process lead to?
What do power imbalances lead to?
What is the third role of critical theorists?
to identify and liberate oppressed groups
What is the Traditional approach in regards to the concept of power?
power is stable
-explores how power manifests
What is the symbological approach in regards to the concept of power?
Power is the product of communication + relationships
-explore how power is restored
What is the radical-critical approach in regards to the concept of power?
how do economic/social/communicative structures create power/relationships
assumptions of reality influence perceptions of situations and events
maintenance of domination
Goal of critical model; help remove control
how we push back against exertions of power
modes of production
the economic conditions that underlie the production process
means of production
actual work process; how products are made and services rendered
What does the Theory of concertive control try to explain?
how power relationships can be transformed in an era of team-based and "alternative" form organisations
-social/team based pressure
direct exertion of authority
when control is exerted in workplace processes such as assembly lines or computer programs
based on the power of hierarchical structure and the rational-legal rules
The perception of oneness with or belongingness where the individual defines themselves in terms of the group in which they are a member
-when individual identifies with an organization or group, they takes on the concerns of the organization or group and accepts those concerns as their own
through communicative interaction, work groups develop techniques to reward and punish behavior that conforms with or deviates from the values identified as important by the work group
What is the critical research technique known as Deconstruction?
involves taking apart a text in order to reveal social and political meanings
the ongoing behavioral and cognitive processes by which individuals join, become integrated into, and exit organizations
What are the phases of socialization?
1. Anticipatory socialization
Anticipatory Socialization phase of socialization
Socialization that occurs before entry into the organization. Encompasses both socialization to an occupation and socialization to an organization.
Encounter phase of socialization
Sensemaking stage that occurs when a new employee enters the organization. The newcomer must let go of old roles and values in adapting to the expectations of the new organization.
Metamorphosis phase of socialization
The state reached at the completion of the socialization process. The new employee is now accepted as an organizational insider.
Role-related information referring to content of socialization
the information, skills, procedures, and rules that an individual must grasp to perform on the job.
Organizational Culture referring to content of socialization
learning cultural norms of the organization
What are the six processes that are useful the various issues that newcomers must cope with when entering an organization?
1.Developing a familiarity with others
2. Acculturating, or learning the culture of the organization
3. Feeling Recognized by others
4. Becoming involved in the organization
5. Developing job competency
6. Role negotiation
What is an Employment Interview in regards to communication processes during assimilation?
an individual or group of organizational representatives and a potential employee come together for questions, answers, and conversation.
What three basic functions do employment interviews serve?
1. to recruit potential employees and make decisions about the quality of those recruits
2. applicant uses the interview as a way to find out more about organization
3. interview serves as a socialization tool
What are Overt questions regarding newcomer information seeking tactics?
Newcomer solicits information by asking direct questions of information targets
What are Indirect Questions regarding newcomer information seeking tactics?
Newcomer solicits information by asking noninterrogative questions or by hinting
What are Third parties regarding newcomer information seeking tactics?
Newcomer solicits information by asking a secondary source (e.g. coworker) rather than a primary source (e.g. supervisor)
What are Testing limits regarding newcomer information seeking tactics?
Newcomer solicits information by breaking or deviating from organizational rules and observing reactions
What are disguising conversations regarding newcomer information seeking tactics?
Newcomer solicits information by disguising the information-seeking attempt as a natural part of the conversation
What is Observing regarding newcomer information seeking tactics?
Newcomer solicits information by watching behavior in salient situations
What is Surveillance regarding newcomer information seeking tactics?
Newcomer solicits information by making sense of past behavior
What are Newcomer Information-seeking tactics in regards to communication processes during assimilation?
occurs primarily during the encounter phase of socialization and emphasizes the proactive role of organizational newcomers.
What are Role-Development processes in regards to communication processes during assimilation?
concerned with how individuals interact to define and develop their organizational roles and begins at organizational entry and continues through the metamorphosis stage of socialization
What is the the Role-Taking phase in the Role-Development process?
the sampling phase wherein the superior attempts to discover the relevant talents and motivations of the member through repetitive testing sequences.
What is the Role-Making phase in the Role-Development process?
marks an evolution from the one-way activity in which the supervisor gives the role and the subordinate takes it, to a process in which the member seeks to modify the nature of the role and the manner in which it is enacted
What is the Role-Routinization Phase in the Role-Development process?
represents the point at which the role of the subordinate and expected behaviors of the supervisor are well understood by both parties
What effects or influences can an Organizational exit produce?
-influences both who leave and those who are left behind
-can have profound effects on the families of those who leave the organization
How does communication play a critical role in the disengagement process?
1. might spur disengagement like when unpleasant communication from both coworkers and the work environment motivate an employee to leave
2. serves as sense-making recourse
3. might change the leave-taker's role shifts from insider to outsider
4. critical for relieving the stress that often occurs in the postexit stage for both leavers and stayers
What is the first stage of the normative model (rational decision making)?
Formulation - identify the problem
What is the second stage of the normative model (rational decision making)?
Development - define the problem
What is the third stage of the normative model (rational decision making)?
Detailing - seek relevant information about problem
What is the fourth stage of the normative model (rational decision making)?
Evaluation - evaluate alternative solutions
What is the fifth of the normative model (rational decision making)?
Implementation - decide on solution
What is the sixth of the normative model (rational decision making)?
Evaluate the solution you implemented - does this solution actually solve the problem?
illusion of a "win-win". trying to find single best solution to an organizational problem
when you do something good enough. bare minimum
Making the best decision with what you have
-cannot know everything (not omniscient)
-ex: operating under time restraints. but don't have time.
felt like it was the right thing to do, gut feeling
What is the orientation phase of Fisher's model of group decision making?
group members become acquainted with each other and the problem at hand
What is the conflict phase of Fisher's model of group decision making?
possible solutions to the problem are presented and debated
What is the emergence phase of Fisher's model of group decision making?
group will arrive at some level of consensus
What is the the reinforcement phase of Fisher's model of group decision making?
the decision will be supported
What is a Unitary Sequence Path of Small group decision making?
group interaction generally followed traditional sequence of orientation, problem analysis, solution, and reinforcement
-frequency = 23%
What is the Complex cyclic path of Small group decision making?
Group interaction consisted of multiple problem-solution cycles
-frequency = 43%
What is the Solution-oriented path of Small group decision making?
group interaction involved no activity related to problem definition or analysis
a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' striving for unanimity overrides their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.
-more concerned with appearing cohesive and maintaining group relations than making a high-quality decision
What is the Illusion of invulnerability in regards to symptoms (pitfalls) of Groupthink?
the belief that nothing can go wrong within the group
What is the Illusion of morality in regards to symptoms (pitfalls) of Groupthink?
the self righteous belief that the virtues of the group are above reproach
What is Stereotyping in regards to symptoms (pitfalls) of Groupthink?
the categorizing of others outside of the group in ways that see their views as unacceptable
What is self-censorship in regards to symptoms (pitfalls) of Groupthink?
The overt restraint of group members against offering opinions counter to the prevailing thought in a group
What is the Illusion of unanimity in regards to symptoms (pitfalls) of Groupthink?
The statement of group agreement while private doubts and disagreements are supressed
What is Direct pressure on dissidents in regards to symptoms (pitfalls) of Groupthink?
the coercive force that obliges group members to behave and think in similar ways
What is Reliance on self-appointed mind guards in regards to symptoms (pitfalls) of Groupthink?
the protection of the group from contrary information
What are the critical functions of the Functional Theory of decision making that effective decision making depends on?
-the group should have a correct understanding of the issues to be resolved
-group should determine the minimal characteristics required in order for any alternative to be acceptable
-the group should identify a relevant and realistic set of alternatives
-the group should carefully examine the alternatives in relation to each previously agreed-upon required characteristic
-The group should select the alternative that is most likely to have the desired characteristic
Symbolic Convergence theory
considers the role of communication such as stories and jokes in creating a feeling of group identity.
Bona fide gropus perspective
proposing that group research consider factors such as shifting membership, permeable group boundaries and interdependence within an organizational context.
participation in decision making
Formal activity of Mutual Concessions
maximize own gains/ minimize own losses
maximize gains for both parties
Affective model of participation
proposes that PDM is an organizational practice that should satisfy employee's higher order needs (esteem needs and self actualization needs)
-PDM---Satisfaction of Higher Order Needs----Work Satisfaction---Motivation---Productivity
Cognitive model of participation
proposes that PDM improves the upward and downward flow of information in the organization.
-PDM---Upward Information Flow OR Downward Information Flow----productivity---satisfaction
identifying and harnessing intellectual assets to allow organizations to build on past experiences and create new mechanisms for exchanging and creating knowledge
Structure regarding the paradoxes of participative democracy
paradoxes involving how organizational democracy is planned, designed, and formalized
Agency regarding the paradoxes of participative democracy
paradoxes concerning an individual's sense of responsibility, autonomy, and cooperation within the participative system
Identity regarding the paradoxes of participative democracy
paradoxes concerning issues of inclusion, boundaries, and interests within the participative system
Power regarding the paradoxes of participative democracy
paradoxes concerning how control and leadership are exercised within the participatory system
the interaction of interdependent people who perceive opposition of goals, aims, and values, and who see the other party as potentially interfering with the realization of these goals
What is central to most definitions of Conflict?
the notion of incompatible goals
It is only when the behaviors of the organizational members are what when conflict arises?
What is a Intergroup conflict in regards to levels of organizational conflict?
considers aggregates (a whole formed by combining several elements) of people within an organization as parties in the conflict.
What is a Interorganizational conflict in regards to levels of organizational conflict?
involves disputes between two or more organizations.
What is the first phase of organizational conflict?
Latent conflict - involves a situation in which the conditions are ripe for conflict because interdependence and possibly incompatibility exist between parties
What is the second phase of organizational conflict?
perceived conflict - occurs when one or more of the parties believes that incompatibilities and interdependence exist.
What is the third phase of organizational conflict?
Felt Conflict - parties begin to personalize perceived conflict by focusing on the conflict issue and planning conflict management strategies
What is the fourth phase of organizational conflict?
Manifest Conflict - conflict is enacted through communication. Interaction might involve cycles of escalation and de-escalation as various strategies are used
What is the fifth phase of organizational conflict?
Conflict aftermath - conflict episode has both short term and long term effects on the individuals, their relationship, and the organization
What is Avoidance in regards to approaching conflicts?
shows little concern for either your own needs or anothers
What is accomodating in regards to approaching conflicts?
satisfies another's needs but does not satisfy your own needs
What is competition in regards to approaching conflicts?
satisfies your own needs but sacrifices anothers
What is compromise in regards to approaching conflicts?
both needs might not be satisfied fully
What is collaboration in regards to approaching conflicts?
you and another work together to satisfy both needs
a formal activity in which disputants settle conflicts about scarce resources or policy disagreements
two conflicting parties are working to maximize their own gains and minimize their own losses
two conflicting parties are trying to maximize gains for both parties
What is an inquisitor in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party exercises control over both the process and the outcome of the conflict resolution
what is a judge in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party exercises control over the outcome but not the process of conflict resolution
what is a mediator/advisor in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party counsels parties who maintain control over both the process and outcome
What is a motivator in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party uses threats and incentives to encourage resolution of the conflict
What is an investigator in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party ferrets out facts of dispute and presents them to relevant authority
what is a restructurer in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party uses authority to redesign the organization in a way that will resolve the conflict
what is a problem solver in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party attempts to discover underlying conditions that have led to the conflict
what is a procedural marshal in regards to Managerial third party conflict resolution roles?
third party describes and enforces rules for conflict resolution
What are ways to resolve conflict?
-brainstorming - accessing employees creativity
see the need for change on the horizon
neutral, involved leadership style
rigid leadership style in which leader makes all decisions and may use coercion or reward to get results
open leadership style that facilitates discussion and shares decision making power
leadership style that uses rewards in return for effective performance
leadership style that motivates, inspires, and develops members to meet goals
leadership that shapes and gains a team's acceptance of a long term goal
style that adapts to needs and maturity of individual groups
What is spray and pray in regards to managerial strategies for communicating about change?
management showers employees with all kinds of information in the hope that employees will be able to sort out significant and insignificant information
What is tell and sell in regards to managerial strategies for communicating about change?
management selects a limited set of messages regarding core organizational issues. Management tells employees about these issues and then sells employees on the wisdom of the chosen approach
What is Underscore and explore in regards to managerial strategies for communicating about change?
management focuses on fundamental issues related to change success and allows employees the creative freedom to explore various possibilities
What is Identify and reply in regards to managerial strategies for communicating about change?
Management listens to and identifies key concerns of employees and then responds to those issues as they are brought up
What is withhold and uphold in regards to managerial strategies for communicating about change?
Management withholds information as much as possible. When management is confronted with questions or rumors, they uphold the party line.
would predict that a leader who likes to focus on tasks would be more effective in structured situations than a leader who likes to focus on relationships. Right manager for right situation
What does the transformational leadership model make a distinction between?
transactional leaders and transformational leaders
leaders who want to instill the ideals of hard work and ethical behavior would do so by exemplifying those ideals in their own behaviors
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