41 terms

# Astronomy Study Guide & Book Quizzed Chapter 1-4

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When we see Saturn going through a period of apparent retrograde motion, it means
Earth is passing Saturn in its orbit, with both planets on the same side of the Sun
In the greek geocentric model, the retrograde motion of a planet occurs when
the planet actually goes backward in its orbit around Earth
Which of the following was not a major advantage of Copernicus's Sun-centered model over the Ptolemaic model?
It made significantly better predictions of planetary positions in our sky.
When we say that a planet has a highly eccentric orbit, we mean that
its orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.
Earth is closer to the sun in january than in july. therefore accord with kepler's second law,
It is summer in January and winter in July
According to kepler's third law
Jupiter orbits the Sun at a faster speed than Saturn
Tycho brahe's contribution to astronomy included
Collecting data that enabled Kepler to discover the laws of planetary motion
Basically, there are two types of scientists. These are the observationalist/experimentalist and the theoretician.
False
We all know there are 180 arc seconds in 1 arc minute.
False
About a week before the full moon, the Moon's phase is
third quarter
Earth displays precession with a period of 26,000 years.
true
One reason we remember the Greeks is because they thought the universe was chaotic and unknowable.
true
When considered as a group, the stars' motion is a little less than 1 degree Westward per day.
true
Total lunar eclipse occurs when:
the Full Moon is passing through one of the nodes.
We know that the IAU has designated 88 constellations. What is the name given to the 12 constellations located along the ecliptic?
the zodiac
Kepler's 1st Law states planetary orbits are ellipses.
true
P2 = a3 is a quick way to remember
Kepler's 3rd Law.
As discussed in class Tycho's model of the universe was a tremendous improvement over either the Ptolemaic or Copernican models.
true
When it is summer in the United States, it is winter in Australia.
true
The fact that nearly all galaxies are moving away from us, with more distant ones moving faster, tells us that
the universe is expanding
Two stars that are in the same constellation
may actually be very far away from each other
The north celestial pole is thirty five degrees above your northern horizon. This tells you that
you are at latitude thirty five degrees north
Beijing and Philadelphia have about the same latitude but very different longitudes. Therefore, tonight's night sky in these two places
will look about the same
If the Sun rises precisely due east,
it must be the day of either the spring or fall equinox
A week after full moon, the moon's phase is
third quarter
some type of lunar or solar eclipse occurs
at least four times a year
If there is going to be a total lunar eclipse tonight, then you know that
the moon's phase is full
Galileo's contribution to astronomy included
making observations and conducting experiments that dispelled scientific objections to the Sun-centered model.
What is NOT true about scientific progress?
Science advances only through the scientific metho
What is NOT true about scientific theory?
A theory cannot be taken seriously by scientists if it contradicts other theories developed by scientists over the past several hundred years.
When Einstein's theory of gravity gained acceptance, it demonstrated that Newton's theory had been
incomplete
What describes an object that is accelerating?
a care going around a circular track at a steady 100 miles per hour
If you visited another planet...
Your mass would be the same as it is on Earth, but your weight may be different
Which person is weightless?
a child in the air as she plays on a trampoline`
Consider the statement "There's no gravity in space." This statement is
completely false
To make a rocket turn left, you need to
fire an engine that shoots out gas to the right
Compared to its angular momentum when it is farthest from the Sun, Earth's angular momentum when it is nearest to the Sun is
Greater
The gravitational potential energy of a contracting interstellar cloud
Gradually transforms into other forms of energy
If Earth were twice as far from the Sun, the force of gravity attracting Earth to the Sun would be
one quarter as strong
According to the law of universal gravitation, what would happen to Earth if the Sun were somehow replaced by a black hole of the same mass?
Earth's orbit would not change
If the Moon were closer to Earth, high tides would
Be higher than they are now