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58 terms

Peele Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 2

Chemistry Comes Alive!
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Matter
the "stuff" of the universe.
Energy
Has no mass and does not take up space.
Kinetic energy
energy in action
Potential energy
stored energy, that is, inactive energy that has the potential,or capability, to do work but is not presently doing so.
Chemical energy
the form stored in the bonds of chemical substances
Adenosine Triphosphate
energy molecule for cells; ATP
Electrical energy
results from the movement of charged particles
Mechanical energy
energy directly involved in moving matter
Radiant energy or electromagnetic energy
is energy that travels in waves
Elements
unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods
Periodic table
A table holding and arranging all the elements
atoms
identical particles or building blocks
atomic symbol
a one- or two- letter chemical shorthand designating each element
nucleus
containing protons and neutrons tightly bound together
Protons
bear a positive charge
Neutrons
are neutral
Atomic mass unit
unit used to measure atoms
electrons
bear a negative charge
Planetary model
is a simplified model of atomic structure
Orbitals
regions around the nucleus in which a given electron or electron pair is likely to be found most of the time
Atomic Number
written as a subscript to the left of its atomic symbol
Mass Number
is the sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons
Isotopes
have the same number of protons and electrons but differ in number of neutrons they contain
Atomic Weight
an average of the relative weights of all the isotopes of an element
Radioisotopes
isotopes that exhibit radioactivity
Molecule
a combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Compound
when two or more different kinds of atoms bind
Mixtures
substances composed of two or more components physically intermixed
Solutions
are homogenous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids or solids.
Solvent
the substance present in the greatest amount
Solutes
substances present in smaller amounts
Percent
parts per 100 parts
Molarity
moles per liter
Mole
is equal to its atomic weight
Molecular Weight
sum of the atomic weights
Avogadro's number
6.02 X 10^23
Colloids
also called emulsions
Suspensions
heterogeneous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle ut
Chemical bonds
hold atoms together when they combine
electron shells
regions of space around the nucleus
valence shell
atom's outermost energy level
ionic bond
bond formed by transfer of electrons
ion
charged particle
anion
gains one or more e-; has negative charge
cation
loses one or more e-; has + charge
crystals
large array of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds
covalent bonds
bond formed by sharing e-
polar molecules
have separate + and - poles
chemical reaction
occurs whenever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
chemical equation
symbolic way of representing a chemical reaction
reactants
reacting substances (on left)
products
found on the right of chemical equation
synthesis
A + B --> AB
decomposition
AB--> A + B
Double replacement
AB + CD --- AC + BD
Single Replacement
a reaction of an element and a compound that yields a different element and a different compound (A + BC ---> AB + C)
exergonic (exothermic)
reactions that release energy
endergonic (endothermic)
reactions that absorb energy