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49 terms

Rocks/Minerals

24 rocks, 18 minerals
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Mineral- Graphite
Native Element
Color: Black/Silver
Streak: Silver/Grey
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 1-3
Commonly used in pencils
Mineral- Pyrite
Sulfide
Color: Gold
Streak: Grey
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 6.5-10
Mineral- Magnetite
Oxide
Color: Black
Streak: Black
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 6.5-10
Magnetic
Mineral- Plagioclase Feldspar
Silicate
Color: Grey/White
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10
Mineral- Potassium Feldspar
Silicate
Color: Orange/Tan/Peach
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10
Mineral- Biotite Mica
Silicate
Color: Black
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (dark)
Hardness: 1-3
Cleavage
Mineral- Muscovite Mica
Silicate
Color: Translucent
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 1-3
Cleavage
Mineral- Talc
Silicate
Color: White
Streak: White
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 1-3
Characteristics: Greasy/Soapy feel
Mineral- Quartz
Silicate
Color: White/Translucent/Light Pink
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 6.5-10
Mineral- Calcite
Carbonate
Color: White/Translucent
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 3-6.5
Reacts with Hydrochloric Acid
Mineral- Hornblende (Amphiboles)
Silicate
Color: Black
Streak: Black
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 6.5-10
Mineral- Hematite
Oxide
Color: Black
Streak: Brown
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 3-6.5
Mineral- Galena
Sulfide
Color: Silver (very shiny)
Streak: Grey
Luster: Metallic
Hardness: 3-6.5
Mineral- Florite
Halide
Color: Purple, Green
Streak: Clear
Luster: Non-metallic (light)
Hardness: 3-6.5
Mineral- Sulfur
Native Element
Color: Yellow
Streak: Yellow
Luster: None
Hardness: 1-3
Mineral- Olivine
Silicate
Color: Dark Green/Yellow (olive)
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10
Mineral- Garnet
Silicate
Color: Brown
Streak: Clear
Luster: None
Hardness: 6.5-10
Rock- Obsidian
Igneous Rock
Color: Black
Super Extrusive
Super fast cooling (lava)
Characteristics: Very shiny black surface, smooth
Rock- Lithographic Limestone
Sedimentary Rock
Color: Tan
Non-Clastic, Chemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)
Rock- Coquina Limestone
Sedimentary Rock
Color: Shells
Non-Clastic, Biochemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)
Characteristics: Obvious pieces of shell and other things
Rock- Fossiliferous Limestone
Sedimentary Rock
Color: Grey
Non-Clastic, Biochemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)
Rock- Chalk (Limestone)
Sedimentary Rock
Color: White
Non-Clastic, Biochemical
Formed in: Ocean (Shallow/Deep)
Characteristics: Can write on slate, common blackboard chalk
Rock- Slate
Metamorphic Rock
Color: Black/Grey
Foliated
Formed from: Shale/Siltstone --> Slate
Characteristics: Can use chalk to write on it, commonly used for blackboards/chalkboards
Rock- Shale
Igneous Rock
Color: Grey/Black
Clastic
Formed in: Quiet deep ocean, Lake bottom
Characteristics: Can see fossils
Rock- Granite
Igneous Rock
Color: Pink/Grey
Intrusive
Granitic
Formed in: Continents
Characteristics: Commonly used in kitchen counters, pinkish in color
Rock- Halite (Rock Salt)
Sedimentary Rock
Color: Translucent
Non-Clastic, Chemical
Formed in: Inland sea dried up (by evaporation)
Characteristics: Tastes salty, looks like a crystal
Rock- Sandstone
Sedimentary Rock
Color: Reddish/Orange
Clastic
Formed in: Coastline, Stream/Lake edge, Desert
Characteristics: Sandy look/feel, has a distinctive reddish color
Rock- Conglomerate Sandstone
Sedimentary Rock
Color: Tan
Clastic
Formed in: Fast-moving stream, Active coastline
Characteristics: Has bits of shell in it
Rock- Gabbro
Igneous Rock
Color: Mostly Black/Grey
Intrusive
Basaltic
Formed in: Oceans/Islands
Characteristics: Is mostly black with small spots of grey
Rock- Anthracite Coal
Metamorphic Rock
Color: Black
Non-Foliated
Formed in: Swamps (from organic coal)
Characteristics: Shiny (not as shiny as obsidian) black surface
Rock- Peridotite
Igneous Rock
Color: Black/Grey
Intrusive
Ultramafic
Formed in: Mantle
Rock- Gneiss
Metamorphic
Color: Grey/White
Foliated
Formed from: Schist/Granite --> intense T or P
or, Mt. building
CharacteristicsL: Obvious foliation
Rock- Rhyolite
Igneous
Color: Light Tan
Extrusive
Granitic
Formed in: Continents
Characteristics: One of the lightest rocks
Rock- Diorite
Igneous
Color: Black & White
Intrusive
Andesitic
Formed in: Coastal areas
Characteristics: Black and White polka-dotted
Rock- Andesite
Igneous Rocks
Color: Grey
Extrusive
Andesitic
Formed in: Coastal areas
Characteristics: Mostly grey, darker in color
Rock- Basalt
Igneous Rock
Color: Grey
Extrusive
Basaltic
Formed in: Oceans/Islands
Characteristics: Constant dark grey color throughout
Rock- Pumice
Igneous Rock
Color: Light grey
Extrusive
Formed in: when lava forms air bubbles as gases escape
Characteristics: Very lightweight, lots of air holes, less dense than water
Rock- Mica Schist
Metamorphic Rock
Color: Shiny Black/Silver
Foliated
Formed from: Shale/Siltstone/Slate --> Schist with an increase in T or P (burial)
Characteristics: Shiny silver, but not as shiny/doesn't have as many big crystals as Mica Garnet Schist
Rock- Mica Garnet Schist
Metamorphic Rock
Color: Shiny Black/Silver
Foliated
Formed from: Shale/Siltstone/Slate --> Schist with an increase in T or P (burial)
Characteristics: Shiny silver, shinier/has bigger crystals than Mica Garnet Schist
Rock- Marble
Metamorphic Rock
Color: White
Non-Foliated
Formed from: Limestone (ocean) --> Marble
Characteristics: Reacts to Hydrochloric Acid (has calcite in composition)
Rock- Quartzite
Metamorphic Rock
Color: White/Light grey
Non-Foliated
Formed from: Sandstone (coastline, stream/lake edge, desert) --> Quartzite
Silicate
Silicon and oxygen combine to form a structure called the silicon-oxygen tentrahedron
Will have "SiO2" in composition
Carbonate
Minerals that contain the elements carbon (C), oxygen (O) and one or more other metallic element (Al, Fe, Pb, Mg or Ti)
Oxide
Minerals that contain oxygen (O) and one or more other elements (usually metals: Al, Fe, Pb, Mg or Ti)
Sulfate/Sulfide
Minerals that contain the element sulfur
Will have "S" in the composition
Halide
Minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements
Will usually have "F" (flourine) or "Cl" (chlorine) in the compostion
Native Elements
Minerals that only contain one element or type of atom
The 5 Characteristics of a Mineral
1. Naturally occurring
2. Solid substance
3. Orderly crystalline substance
4. Definite chemical composition
5. Generally considered inorganic
Rocks vs. Minerals (How are they different?)
Rocks do not have a crystalline structure
Minerals get jumbled up in a rock
Some rocks are not even made of minerals