31 terms

yarn

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steps of yarn production
1.opening
2.carding
3.drawing
4.combing
5.roving
6.spinning
Opening process:
loosing the bale+blends+cleans fibers+ forms lap
evenness foreign matter and strength
carding:
cleans and aligns fibers
forms silver- a rope from carding
carding also reduces nep dust short fiber
drawing
further blending leveling and straighening of the fibers
combing
long staple cotton fiber is fed into a machine removing short fibers, blending and straightening
the short fibers removed in the process are called nolls - % of material fed into machine
semi combed nolls= <12% super combed >22%
roving
reduce silver size by drawing and add slight twist for adequate strength from roving
spinning
forms yarn with designed size + adds twist for strength and winds the yarns into a bobbin
combed yarns
yarn that is made from the longest and finest fiber
strength is higher than carded
it cost more than carded
carded yarns
made from short fiber, proturding fiber ends
woolen yarns
wool or wool belends that have gone through the process of carding.
worsted yarns
wool blends that have gone through the combing process.
ring spinning system
traveler on the ring adds twist-which limits production speed to 100ft per minute-much slower then open end spinning
produce wide range of yarn size
yarn has compact structure
hairness -high
comfort-best
pilling property-low
compact ring spun
improved eveness comfort
increased elongation & tenacity & fabric resistance to wear
reduced hairness
open end spinning system
made from silver
not continous fiber strand- seperated and feet into formation end of yarn
twisst is applied by means other than using traveler
higher speed than ring spinning
rotor spinning
3 times faster than ring spinning (830 per min)
yarns are less compact, more rigid, low strength, not as soft as ring spun, high pilling, more even than ring spun
for heavier weight apparel and furnishings
air jet spinning
high spend 10 times of ring spinning and twice of open end spinning
soft low hairness low comfort good thermal retention, medium strength, high abrasion resistance
bedding and furnishing
bulk yarn
smooth filament yarns, great covering power
continous filament yarn straight fibers closely packed
do not pill or shed
indirect system
yarn number
measured by hanks formed per pound of the yarn
English system(yarn #)
how it is measured
The higher of the yarn number the finer the yarn
Cotton(ne)1 hank= ____yards
840
Worsted wool (Nw) 1 hank=
560 yards
woolen/linen 1 hank =
300 yards
direct system
-tex, dtex,denier
-weight in grams of per unit yarn length
-describes filament fiber yarn size
-the higher of the number the larger of thicker size of yarn
tex- weigh in grams
1000 meter length
dtex- weight in grams
10,000 meter length
denier- weight in grams
9000 meter length
wool fiber size of 80s or 60s equals to the
finest that the fiber is able to spin
finer than 80s means the wool fiber will be under
17.70 micron in diameter
Ne 50 s 15 tpi
ne=english cotton size
50=yarn # or one pound of this yarn will produce 50 hanks with each hank being 840 yds in length
s=twist direction
15 tpi=15 turns per min
cotton system yarn
yarn # / ply
18/1 50/2
wool system yarn
ply/yarn#
1/18 2/50