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26 terms

Holt Modern Biology Ch. 17 Review

STUDY
PLAY
Domain
1
Kingdom
2
Phylum (animals) / Division (plants)
3
Class
4
Order
5
Family
6
Genus
7
Species
8
Who is the father of modern taxonomy (classification of organisms)?
Carl Linnaeus
Hominidae (family)
Great Apes
Aristotle classified animals on the basis of
where they lived.
The main criterion used in Linnaeus's system of classification is an organism's
morphology.
Each subset within a class of organisms is call an
order.
In the scientific name of an organism, the first part is the
genus.
How were the classification systems of Aristotle and Linnaeus similar?
Both considered where the species lived and categorized plants and animals.
How does the classification process used by modern taxonomists differ from that used by Linnaeus?
Modern - considers evolutionary history; Linnaeus - considers mainly morphology
Why is Aristotle's system of classifying animals no longer in use by biologists?
It did not adequately cover all organisms, and Aristotle's use of common names was problamatic.
Taxonomy
the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Systematics
analyzes the diversity of organisms in the context of their natural relationships
What do scientists consider when classifying organisms?
Fossils, homologous features, embryos, chromosomes, the sequences of proteins and DNA
Phylogenetic diagram
displays how closely related a subset of taxa are thought to be
Cladistics
uses shared, derived characters as the only criterion for grouping taxa
Three domains
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Domain Bacteria aligns with...?
Kingdom Eubacteria - consists of single celled prokaryotes (true bacteria)
Domain Archaea aligns with...?
Kingdom Archaebacteria - consists of single celled prokaryotes with cell membranes and walls
Domain Eukarya includes the kingdoms...?
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia