APUSH Chapter 28
Terms in this set (49)
reformers who worked to stop unfair practices by businesses and improve the way grovernment works
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.
wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class criticizing people who made money seemingly for money's sake.
Jacob A. Riis
shocked middle-class Americans in 1890 with How the Other Half Lives which described the dark and dirty slums of New York
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms. He criticized promoters and profiteers.
influenced by strong European governments, called for more government action in the U.S and started gaining votes in the ballot box.
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Thomas W. Lawson
made over $50 million on the Stock Market and wrote a series of articles in the magazine Everybody's from 1905-1906 titled "Frenzied Finance" that revealed how his accomplices practiced and worked the Stock Market.
David G. Phillips
Wrote a series in Cosmopolitan titled "The Treason of the Senate" which boldly charged that 75 of the 90 senators represented the railroads and trusts, not the people. His indictment impressed President Roosevelt. He continued his writing until he was killed in 1911.
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Railroads on Trial". He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
enabled voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from their jobs
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
Passed by Congress in 1912 gave people a chance to vote for their senators directly instead of through state legislatures
City manager system
form of manicipal government that entrusts the executive role to a professionally trained manager, who is chosen, and can be fired, by a city council
Robert M. Lafollette
(Fighting Bob), progressive Republican governor from Wisconsin 1901, routing the lumber and railroad he gained control from the cooporations and gave it back to the people
A progressive reformer of the early 1900s. He was elected the republican govenor of California in 1910, and helped to put an end to trusts. He put an end to the power that the Southern Pacific Railroad had over politics.
Charles Evans Hughes
Secretary of State under Harding, Proposed a 10-year moratorium on the construction of major new warships at the Washington Conference
Women's club movement
provided an even broader civic entryway for many middle-class women where they could discuss social issues and politics
helped persuade to prohibit child labor and limit number of hours women were forced to work, founded national child labor committee
Muller v. Oregon
A case ruled Constitutional to set limits on the number of hours a woman could work.
Louis D. Brandeis
attorney in Muller v. Oregon, saying women's weaker bodies suffered harmful effects in factory work.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
In 1911 the tragic fire killed 146 people, mostly women because the owner kept the stairway doors locked to prevent theft, following stricter building acts and factory codes, and worker insurance.
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
states passed these which controlled, restricted or abolished alcohol
Prohibited the manufacture, sale and transport of alcoholic beverages
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers.
(TR), 1902, , Coal mines of Pennsylvania. 140,000 workers, many illiterate immigrants had been frightfully exploited and accident plagued. Demanded a 20% increase in pay and reduction of the working day from 10 to 9 hours. Mine owners refused to negotiate., TR threatens to bring in troops, then they listened
Department of Commerce and Labor
Established in 1903 (later to be divided into 2 separate departments) it was to help Theodore Roosevelt in eliminating most corporate abuses through its investigatory arm, the Bureau of Corporations. The Bureau of Corporations helped break the stronghold of monopolies.
1903 law that forced railroads charge the same prices to all their customers
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods. Prohibited free passes
consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Northern Securities Case
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
political, social and scientific movement to protect natural resources
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Allowed federal government to sell western land to individuals in parcells of 160 acres for irrigation projects.
founded Sierra Club in 1892; fought unsuccessfully to prevent the damming of the Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park.
Hetch Hetchy was a beautiful valley in Yosemite. It damming in the 1920's caused major controversy among environmentalists. Opposition was led by John Muir and the Sierra Club.
Panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the govt. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term. In the first election he ran with TR's popularity.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist Party candidate
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Philander Knox encouraged US bankers to extend loans to the new government; when the pro-American governments faced opposition, US troops stayed for 10 years to establish control.
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).