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modern genetics

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test cross
allows you to determine unclear genotypes
one-trait test cross
cross between a dominant-looking organism (B_) and a recessive organism of the same speices; offspring will determine the unknown genotype
two-trait test cross
cross unknown (B_R_) with a completely recessive organism of the same species
incomplete dominance, codimance, multiple alleles, sex-linked, polygenic
five types of modern genetics
unifactorial
one gene with two alleles; one dominant and one recessive
multifactorial
one gene with multiple alleles and other factors
incomplete dominance
one gene with two alleles producing an intermediate or third phenotype instead of the expected two
codominance
one gene with two alleles; both are dominant and are expressed in the offspring creating three phenotypes
roan
shows both alleles having to do with cows and horses
multiple alleles
one gene with more than two alleles may have degrees of dominance between the alleles
sex-linked traits
one gene with two alleles; alleles are found on the sex chromosomes
many genes
meaning of polygenetic
polygenic traits
one gene that is controlled by two or more sets of different alleles found possibly on two or more sets of chromosomes
recombinants
offspring has one recessive and one dominant trait from p gen