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test cross

allows you to determine unclear genotypes

one-trait test cross

cross between a dominant-looking organism (B_) and a recessive organism of the same speices; offspring will determine the unknown genotype

two-trait test cross

cross unknown (B_R_) with a completely recessive organism of the same species

incomplete dominance, codimance, multiple alleles, sex-linked, polygenic

five types of modern genetics


one gene with two alleles; one dominant and one recessive


one gene with multiple alleles and other factors

incomplete dominance

one gene with two alleles producing an intermediate or third phenotype instead of the expected two


one gene with two alleles; both are dominant and are expressed in the offspring creating three phenotypes


shows both alleles having to do with cows and horses

multiple alleles

one gene with more than two alleles may have degrees of dominance between the alleles

sex-linked traits

one gene with two alleles; alleles are found on the sex chromosomes

many genes

meaning of polygenetic

polygenic traits

one gene that is controlled by two or more sets of different alleles found possibly on two or more sets of chromosomes


offspring has one recessive and one dominant trait from p gen

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