cs Chapter 2
Terms in this set (101)
A desktop system unit that houses the computer's processor, memory, and monitor in a single unit.
Combines the functions of a printer, scanner, copier, and fax into one machine.
The set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games.
The width-to-height proportion of a monitor.
binary digit (bit)
A digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computer's switches. A bit contains a value of either 0 or 1.
The language computers use to process data into information, consisting of only the values 0 and 1.
A type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances (approximately 3-300 feet depending on power); often used to connect peripherals such as printers and keyboards to computers or headsets to cell phones.
Blu-ray disc (BD)
A method of optical storage for digital data, developed for storing high-definition media. It has the largest storage capacity of all optical storage options.
Eight binary digits (bits).
central processing unit (CPU, or processor)
The part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing; it is the largest and most important chip in the computer. The CPU controls all the functions performed by the computer's other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions.
Refers to a service that keeps files on the Internet (in the "cloud") rather than storing files solely on a local device.
The process of starting a computer from a powered-down or off state.
compact disc (CD)
A method of optical storage for digital data; originally developed for storing digital audio.
A data-processing device that gathers, processes, outputs, and stores data and information.
A port that enables a computing device to be connected to other devices or systems such as networks, modems, and the Internet.
Numbers, words, pictures, or sounds that represent facts, figures, or ideas; the raw input that users have at the start of a job.
A computer that's intended for use at a single location. A desktop computer consists of a case that houses the main components of the computer, plus peripheral devices.
digital video (or versatile) disc (DVD)
A method of optical storage for digital data that has greater storage capacity than compact discs.
digital video interface (DVI) port
Video interface technology that newer LCD monitors, as well as other multimedia devices such as televisions, DVD players, and projectors, use to connect to a PC.
A special shelf inside a computer that is designed to hold storage devices.
A specially designed computer chip that resides inside another device, such as a car. These self-contained computer devices have their own programming and typically neither receive input from users nor interact with other systems.
How a user sets up his or her computer and other equipment to minimize risk of injury or discomfort.
A port that's slightly larger than a standard phone jack and that transfers data at speeds of up to 10,000 Mbps; used to connect a computer to a DSL or cable modem or to a network.
expansion card (adapter card)
A circuit board with specific functions that augment the computer's basic functions and provide connections to other devices; examples include the sound card and the video card.
external hard drive
A hard drive that is enclosed in a protective case to make it portable; the drive is connected to the computer with a data transfer cable and is often used to back up data.
An interface port that transfers data at 800 Mbps.
A drive that plugs into a universal serial bus (USB) port on a computer and that stores data digitally. Also called a USB drive, jump drive, or thumb drive.
flash memory card
A form of portable storage; this removable memory card is often used in digital cameras, smartphones, video cameras, and printers.
About a billion bytes.
One billion hertz.
A movement that encourages environmentally sustainable computing (or IT).
hard disk drive (HDD)
The computer's nonvolatile, primary storage device for permanent storage of software and documents.
Any part of a computer or computer system you can physically touch.
A power-management mode that saves the current state of the current system to the computer's hard drive.
high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI)
A compact audio-video interface standard that carries both high-definition video and uncompressed digital audio.
A printer that has tiny hammer-like keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, thus making a mark on the paper. The most common impact printer is the dot-matrix printer.
Data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion; the result, or output that users require at the end of a job.
A nonimpact printer that sprays tiny drops of ink onto paper.
A hardware device used to enter, or input, data (text, images, and sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into a computer. Some input devices are keyboards and mice.
internal hard drive
A hard drive that resides within the computer's system unit and that usually holds all permanently stored programs and data.
A hardware device used to enter typed data and commands into a computer.
A unit of computer storage equal to approximately 1,000 bytes.
laptop (or notebook) computer
A portable computer with a keyboard, a monitor, and other devices integrated into a single compact case.
A nonimpact printer known for quick and quiet production and high-quality printouts.
Comprises computing devices, software, or peripherals that use techniques, parts, and methods from an earlier time that are no longer popular.
light-emitting diode (LED)
A newer, more energy-efficient technology used in monitors. It may result in better color accuracy and thinner panels than traditional LCD monitors.
liquid crystal display (LCD)
The technology used in flat-panel computer monitors.
A large, expensive computer that supports hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously and executes many different programs at the same time.
A unit of computer storage equal to approximately 1 million bytes.
A device that allows you to capture sound waves, such as those created by your voice, and to transfer them to digital format on your computer.
monitor (display screen)
A common output device that displays text, graphics, and video as soft copies (copies that can be seen only on screen).
A special circuit board in the system unit that contains the central processing unit, the memory (RAM) chips, and the slots available for expansion cards; all of the other boards (video cards, sound cards, and so on) connect to it to receive power and to communicate.
A hardware device used to enter user responses and commands into a computer.
A computing device that runs a full-featured operating system but that weighs two pounds or less.
network interface card (NIC)
An expansion card that enables a computer to connect other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high-speed Internet connection.
A printer that sprays ink or uses laser beams to make marks on the paper. The most common nonimpact printers are inkjet and laser printers.
Permanent storage, as in read-only memory (ROM).
operating system (OS)
The system software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals, and software.
A hardware device that uses lasers or light to read from, and even write to, CDs, DVDs, or Blu-ray discs.
A mouse that uses an internal sensor or laser to control the mouse's movement. The sensor sends signals to the computer, telling it where to move the pointer on the screen.
organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays
Displays that use organic compounds to produce light when exposed to an electric current. Unlike LCDs, OLEDs do not require a backlight to function and therefore draw less power and have a much thinner display, sometimes as thin as 3 mm.
A device that sends processed data and information out of a computer in the form of text, pictures (graphics), sounds (audio), or video.
A device such as a monitor, printer, or keyboard that connects to the system unit through a data port.
1015 bytes of digital information.
A single point that creates the images on a computer monitor. Pixels are illuminated by an electron beam that passes rapidly back and forth across the back of the screen so that the pixels appear to glow continuously.
A large printer that uses a computer-controlled pen to produce oversize pictures that require precise continuous lines to be drawn, such as maps and architectural plans.
An interface through which external devices are connected to the computer.
A power supply regulates the wall voltage to the voltages required by computer chips; it's housed inside the system unit.
A common output device that creates tangible or hard copies of text and graphics.
Manipulating or organizing data into information.
A device that can project images from your computer onto a wall or viewing screen.
A keyboard that gets its name from the first six letters on the top-left row of alphabetic keys on the keyboard.
random access memory (RAM)
The computer's temporary storage space or short-term memory. It's located in a set of chips on the system unit's motherboard, and its capacity is measured in megabytes or gigabytes.
read-only memory (ROM)
A set of memory chips, located on the motherboard, which stores data and instructions that cannot be changed or erased; it holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up.
The clearness or sharpness of an image, which is controlled by the number of pixels displayed on the screen.
A type of input device that inputs images into computers.
A low-power mode for electronic devices such as computers that saves electric power consumption and saves the last-used settings. When the device is "woken up," work is resumed more quickly than when cold booting the computer.
A device with features of a computer including a wide assortment of apps, media players, high-quality cameras, and web connectivity.
The set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do and that enables it to perform different tasks.
solid-state drive (SSD)
A storage device that uses the same kind of memory that flash drives use but that can reach data in only a tenth of the time a flash drive requires.
An expansion card that attaches to the motherboard inside the system unit and that enables the computer to produce sounds by providing a connection for the speakers and microphone.
Output devices for sound.
A pen-shaped device used to tap or write on touch-sensitive screens.
A specially designed computer that can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly; used in situations in which complex models requiring intensive mathematical calculations are needed (such as weather forecasting or atomic energy research).
A system of speakers set up in such a way that it surrounds an entire area (and the people in it) with sound.
The set of programs that enables a computer's hardware devices and application software to work together; it includes the operating system and utility programs.
The metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together, including the computer's processor (its brains), its memory, and the many circuit boards that help the computer function.
A mobile computer, such as the Apple iPad or Samsung Galaxy Tab, integrated into a flat multitouch-sensitive screen. It uses an onscreen virtual keyboard, but separate keyboards can be connected via Bluetooth or wires.
A laptop computer designed specifically to work with handwriting-recognition technology.
1,099,511,627,776 bytes or 240 bytes.
A printer that works either by melting wax-based ink onto ordinary paper (in a process called thermal wax transfer printing) or by burning dots onto specially coated paper (in a process called direct thermal printing).
A high speed input/ output port; Thunderbolt 2 provides two channels of 20 Gbps capacity on one port.
touch pad (trackpad)
A small, touch-sensitive screen at the base of a laptop keyboard that's used to direct the cursor.
A type of monitor (or display in a smartphone or tablet computer) that accepts input from a user touching the screen.
A full-featured but lightweight laptop computer that features a low-power processor and a solid-state drive; it tries to reduce its size and weight to extend battery life without sacrificing performance.
universal serial bus (USB) port
A port that can connect a wide variety of peripheral devices to the computer, including keyboards, printers, mice, smartphones, external hard drives, flash drives, and digital cameras.
video card (video adapter)
An expansion card that's installed inside a system unit to translate binary data (the 1s and 0s the computer uses) into the images viewed on the monitor.
video graphics array (VGA) port
A port to which a cathode ray tube monitor connects.
Temporary storage, such as in random access memory. When the power is off, the data in volatile storage is cleared out.
The process of restarting the system while it's powered on.
A small camera that sits on top of a computer monitor (connected to the computer by a cable) or that's built into a laptop computer and is usually used to transfer live video.
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