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A&P 1: Integumentary System
Protect from invading bacteria. Holds in water and heat.
Outer layer of skin. Has five sub-layers.
Second layer of skin. Has two sub-layers.
Third layer of skin
Deepest layer of Epidermis. Single layer. Where mitosis takes places. Melanocytes, melanosomes, and Merkel cells.
Cells that make melanin.
Granules of melanin
Docking station for nerve endings. Beacon for nerve signals.
Second deep layer of the Epidermis. Several layers. Keratinocytes, melanin granules, and Langerhan's cells.
UV shield for keratinocytes.
Dendritic. Macrophages that activate the immune system.
Middle layer of Epidermis. 3-5 layers thick. Nuclei begins to disintegrate.
Clear band of cells. Found ONLY in thick Epidermis. Palms, soles of feet.
Outer layer if Epidermis. 20 to 30 layers. No nuclei. Glycolipids from the cell matrix cause this layer to be waterproof.
Skin Pigment. Yellow, Redish-brown, black. Protects DNA from UV radiation. Chemical layer of skin.
Red/Pink color. Caused by red blood cells in the dermis.
Accumulation of melanin
Destroys the body's folic acid stores.
Caused by clumping of elastin fibers from excessive exposure to skin.
Redness. Blood vessel dilation due to: blushing, fever, hypertension.
Paleness. Blood vessels constrict due to: fear, stress, anemia.
Yellowing. Caused by a liver disorder.
Bruising. Due to blood escaping from the blood vessel and clotting beneath the skin.
Bluish tent to mucous membrane. Due to poorly oxygenated blood: respiratory problem
Superficial layer of Dermis. Areolar loose connective tissue. Abundant in blood vessels, pain receptors, and Meissner's Corpuscles.
Touch receptor in the papillary layer of the dermis. Tactile disc for light touch.
Caused by dermal papillae. Has sweat glands along crest. Leads to the fingerprint on the epidermis.
Deepest layer of dermis. Made up of Collagenous Fibers (elastic & reticular).
Less dense areas of collagen. Surgeons use to follow with incisions.
Near joints. Attaching to deeper layers.
Stretch marks. Tearing of the dermis.
Simple, coiled, and tubular. Most abundant. Palms, soles, forehead. Simple Cubodial Epithelium. Secrete sweat for overheating, or emotional response.
Armpit and anogenital region. Secretes sweat with fatty acids into ducts.
Found all over body except hands and feet. Secretes only sebum. Impedes H2O loss, bactericidal, lubricates and softens hair.
Medulla of the Hair.
Central core. Large cells separated by air cells.
Cortex of the Hair
Surrounds the medulla
Cuticle of the Hair
Single layer. Keratinized. Outside layer of the hair.
A knot of sensory nerves surround this on the hair.
Dermal tissue that extends into bulbs. Contains capillaries for nutrients.
Natural thinning. In the 40s the hair is not replaced as fast.
Male Pattern Baldness
Genetic. Response to change in the body's testosterone levels.
Viral infection of the skin.
Hereditary. Rashes on skin. Often triggered by stress/hormonal changes.
First Degree burn. A sunburn.
Partial Thickness Burn
Second Degree burn. Blisters. 3 to 4 weeks to heal.
Full Thickness Burn
Third Degree burn. New skin can only regenerate from the edge. Usually requires surgery and grafting.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Least fatal skin cancer. Starts in Basal layer of Epithelium. Slowly spreads to other layers until removed.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Skin cancer. Starts in the Spinosum layer. Can metastasize to the lymph nodes if not removed.
Most fatal skin cancer. Starts in the melanocytes. Can metastasize to the lymph and blood.
Low pH of Skin
Works with the acid mantel to retard bacterial growth. Chemical layer of skin.
Dermcidin. From sweat and sebum. Chemical layer of skin.
Secreted by epithelium. Directly kills bacteria. Chemical layer of skin.
Tough receptor in dermis. For deeper pressure.