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Chemical Reation

Is a change in which one or more substances are converted into new substances.

Chemical Equation

a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products.

4 Indications of a chemical reaction

precipitate, change in color, increase or decrease in temperature, and/ or production of gas.


the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction


the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction


a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture


A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.


dissolved in water


a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

Synthesis Reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

Decomposition Reaction

separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance

Single-displacement Reaction

A reaction in which one element or radical takes the place of another element or radical in a compound

Double-displacement Reaction

a reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound forms from the apparent exchange of atoms or ions between two compounds

Combustion Reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light

Activity series of metals

lists metals in order of decreasing reactivity


the relation between the quantities of substances that take part in a reaction or form a compound (typically a ratio of whole integers)


the molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams

Avogadro's number

number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 X 10^23

Molar Mass

the mass of one mole of a pure substance

Formula Mass

the sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion

Percentage Composition

the percentage by mass of each element in a compound

Empirical Formula

a chemical formula showing the ratio of elements in a compound rather than the total number of atoms

Molecular Formula

a chemical formula based on analysis and molecular weight

Mole Ratio

the relative number of moles of the substances required to produce a given amount of product in a chemical reaction

Limiting Reactant

the substance that controls the quantity of product that can form in a chemical reaction

Excess reactant

The substance that is not used up completely in a reaction

Actual yield

the measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction

Theoretical yield

the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant

Percentage yield

The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100

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