Terms in this set (...)

raised but flat region
a broad grassland with scattered trees
Natural Resources
natural materials that people can use to meet their needs
Labor Specialization
the division of jobs and skills in a society
name of the trade route across the Sahara desert
a large group that travels together
formal study and learning
professional storytellers and oral historians who are the keepers of West African history, still sing about the achievements of great kings like Sundiata
a kind of grand stone pillar which marked each grave of Axumś rulers
Greek and Roman trading settlements on the Red Sea region
are men who dedicate themselves to worshiping God
ruling family
Swahili settlements that had grown into city-states; named that because of the multi-storied stone houses built there
personś social class: determined by the family born into
connection based on family relationships
a group of people descended from a common ancestor
Ethnic Group
when many villages share a distinct culture, language, and identity
Oral Tradition
community´s cultural and historical background, passed down in spoken stories or songs
wise saying
Polyrhythmic Drumming
combines two or more different rhythms at the same time
How is a plateau described in the chapter?
A raised but flat region; like a plate turned upside down; near the coast, lack of natural harbors, many waterfalls; discouraged seagoing trade.
How does labor specialization help a society?
The divisions of skills and jobs in a society allowed some people to not have to grow food, when food supplies grew. This also allowed the others (not farmers) to become experts in things like government.
How did Mansa Musaś hajj and caravan show he was a great leader?
His wealth impressed Arab writers, and it brought world attention to the Mali Empire.
Why was Timbuktu a great center of scholarship?
Since it was a trading center,all new and major ideas are brought there, making it an ideal place to study and learn.
Why were griots important before writing was adopted in West Africa?
Griots were important before writing was adopted in West Africa because they continued to pass down stories of their ancient history from generation to generation.
Africa's coastline, with its lack of natural harbors, discouraged what?
Africa's coastline, with its lack of natural harbors, discouraged seagoing trade.
What became much more important because of Africa's lack of natural harbors?
It made trading across land important, helped the protection of the many empires, and let them focus on their wealth and resources.
The 2 largest rivers in West Africa are?
The two largest rivers in West Africa are the Nile and the Senegal Rivers.
Metal discoveries in West Africa, helped build the empires there. Explain in detail how this happened. Give examples.
They could now create metal tools and weapons, giving them the advantage in battle, and lead to the rise of Ghana.
As food supplies grew in early Africa, people were able to do what?
Some could become experts in things like government or crafts, which lead to labor specialization in West Africa.
Tell me about families in Africa. Give examples to back up your answer
They were really tied to their roots, and they shared a strong family based connection, or kinship, with their fellow West Africans. For example, lineages were the building blocks of African society.
When Ghana had conquests, what job did the new leaders give to the people who were conquered?
The conquered people became slaves, so jobs like farming, and basically everyones' dirty work.
What did Ghana trade for salt and other goods?
Ghana traded slaves for salt and other goods.
What did Ghana being on the Saharan trade route and many traders passing through there do for the empire?
Many traders passing through would bring attention to the empire, allowing trade relationships to be established, and cultures to be spread.
West Africa and North Africa had a very good business relationship. Explain in detail why it was a good relationship.
The Trans-Saharan trade route allowed North and West Africa to have a very good business relationship.
What did Ghana's rulers controlled to keep the prices high?
They controlled the amount of gold mined, this law removed much gold from the market, keeping prices high.
What did Ghana controlling prices of gold do for the empire?
It kept the kings and empire rich.
Who brought Islam to West Africa?
North African traders brought Islam to West Africa.
Ghana was religiously tolerant and welcomed who or what group?.
Ghana welcomed Muslims.
What things caused the Ghana Empire to decline?
Food shortages, over population, over dependence on trade, and Almoravid invasions.
What kingdom began to grow after Ghana and took over most of the land of Ghana?
The Mali kingdom began to grow.
Sundiata ruled which new kingdom?
He ruled the Mali empire.
What 2 things did Sundiata do to make his kingdom prosper and spread?
He provided laws and took control of gold production throughout the land.
Who ruled during Mali's most prosperous times and made the empire larger?
Mansa Musa ruled during Mali's golden age.
The person in #19 embraced what and made the empire the center for what groups learning and art and brought back many scholars from his trip to where?.
Mansa Musa embraced Islam and made the empire the center for Muslim learning and art and brought back scholars from his trip to Mecca.
How have natural resources affected West African history?
It affected West Africa by some of them being valuable, such as gold and salt, promoting trade. Trade brought Africa into contact with other people and practices.
Why were some kings of Ghana so wealthy?
Gold taken from the ground became king's property. This law removed much gold from the market, keeping prices high.
Why was salt so valuable in West Africa?
It was a mineral necessary for good health and to preserve foods.
Explain how ancient Ghana became powerful and then declined.
The population in West Africa grew, and to keep order they formed governments, but came across a kingdom. Families were very important, and society was organized to were each family had a job or skill. Over population, food shortages, over dependence on trade, and invasions lead to its decline.
Describe how the Sahara and regions south of the Sahara differ from each other.
The rain forest gets plenty of water, the savanna gets barely enough, but the desert barely gets any rainfall yearly.
The Sisse clan became the rulers of the Soninke. Explain whether this is an example of labor specialization.
Yes, this is because labor specialization is based on what family you are born into and your wealth. The level of their labor specialization is ranked highest.
Why was Sundiata a national hero in Mali?
He lead a rebellion against Sumangru's cruel rule with the help of Malinke kings.
What is the Trans-Saharan trade route? What did it do for Africa?
The Trans-Saharan trade route was across the Sahara desert, and spread trade from West to North Africa.
Describe two ways Mali became a center of learning.
Mansa Musa, bringing world attention to the empire, enlarged its size and embraced Islam in Mali.
Why do so many people still speak languages of Mali and Songhai?
Griots still speak those languages and have passed it on from generation to generation, so the legacy remains.
How did controlling the gold and salt trade make Songhai the largest empire in West Africa?
Controlling the gold and salt trade bringing in more gold and salt, which made all empires wealthy because they were very valuable.
Sundiata called himself mansa, or emporer. Why do you think he did so?
He was a great ruler who provided things for his empire, so he wanted to be called emperor.
When Songhai became powerful, what do you think happened to the people of Ghana?
They became known as the Songhai after they took over.
What is a stele?
A stele is a kind of grand stone pillar, marking each grave of Axum rulers, with false doors and windows.
What did the moks of the Zagwe help do?
They helped continue Christian tradition by replacing officials with Christian ones, carved huge stone churches, and produced Ethiopian music and literature still used today.
What is a stonetown?
Is a Swahili settlement that has grown into city-states, and were named that because of the multi-storied stone houses built there.
Where was Axum located?
It was located on Africaś east coast, near the Red Sea.
How did Ethiopia become a center of Christianity?
By continuing and spreading the Christian traditions.
How was the Swahili culture like many East African cultures?
Swahili was a mix of Eastern Africaś languages and practices.
Why were port cities important for trade?
They were important for trade because they were the main spots for exporting and importing goods from neighboring countries.
How were Kush and Azum alike and different?
They both settled near bodies of water. But Kush heavily traded with Egypt, while Axum traded with Roman Egypt, Southern Arabia, and Asia.
How might the lack of natural resources affect a regionś ability to trade?
It will have a major decline in trade, because if you have nothing to give you will get nothing.
What is a lineage?
It is a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Why is oral tradition important?
The artistic element made it easier to pass on a groupś history and culture.
Which musical instrument was most used West Africa?
Describe the social structure in West Africa.
Based off of wealth and what family you were born into; emperor, kings and nobles, traders and farmers, skilled workers, and slaves.
How are West African traditional religions like Islam?
They are both alike because they had prayer and people to lead them.
What was the purpose of griots?
Their purpose was to spread a groupś culture and history through oral tradition.
How do you think slavery in West Africa compared to slavery in the United States?
In West Africa slaves could marry and sometimes family couldn´t be separated.
Why do you think the story of Ananse was included in the textbook?
The story showed a quicker way to share wisdom, and is why storytelling is a major part of African history.
Are art and trade related?
Yes, because you can trade art, and you may need to trade stuff for art supplies.
Africaś people are very good at what? How did this become a bad trait to have?
Africaś people were very good at farming, and because of this they were enslaved many times.
What is the name of the worldś largest desert?
Sahara desert
What is the interior of Africa?
How big is the Sahara desert?
3.5 sq miles
What did Africa look like before 6,000 years ago?
green, wet, and plush
Where was rain most common in Africa?
along the equator
Over how many languages are spoken in Africa?
How long is the longest river in the world?
(Nile) 4,132 miles
Around what time was Adam?
120,000 BC
Around what time was Noah?
2,500 BC
Around what time was Abraham?
Around what time was Moses?
Around what time was Jesus?
Around what time was Ancient Africa?
400-1,500 AD
Where did early civilizations start?
Near fresh water, such as; the Nile, Congo, Senegal, Zambezi, and Orange Rivers
What happened to Ghana after the invasions?
It soon declined and never regained prosperity.
Who were two great rulers of the Mali kingdom?
Sundiata and Mansa Musa
How did people travel across the Saharan?
On camels
capturing something; usually in war
economic well-being
What was a critical trade in Africa?
the salt trade
What two goods were most important to trans-Saharan trade?
gold and salt
What civilization was among the first to use iron?
the Nok
What is vegetation zone?
areas where farming is possible and vegetation is found
Who was believed to to be the founder of Mali?
Sundiata Keita
the way that one acts
Which empire was the second West African empire to prosper from the gold and salt trade?
After rulers converted to Islam, which empire embraced Muslim culture?
Under which empire did Islam and the Arabic language spread across West Africa?
religious journey to Mecca in the Islamic religion
having to do with trade and business
an influence from the past
a place in a desert water can be found; usually from springs
Arab nomads
Arabic migration
a place for Muslim pilgrims to visit
Islam's holy book
traditions of the Muhammed
Muslim house of worship
the Islamic code of law
rulers that led the Muslim community and empire
members of a group who hold the Sunnah in high regard
supporters of Ali
rulers of Muslim states
woven fabric
an Islamic lifestyle that emphasizes controlling one's desires
Arabic Numerals
the numbers we use still today
Ali Ber
Ali the great
Which empire was the largest of West African trading empires?
How did business run in the Songhai empire?
Smoothly with the help of highly trained administrators.
When was Ali emperor?
1464 AD
What did Ghana do to every load of salt that entered and left it?
They taxed each load
Who established a system of weights and measures that helped ensure the wealth of the Songhai empire?
Overtime, which empire used their superior weapons to control others?
After the fall of Kush, what kingdom specialized in trade?
What kingdom became a center of Christianity in East Africa?
What part of Africa played a major role in ocean, or seagoing trade?
East African city-states
long established custom or practice
What items did East African traders sail to India to get?
grain, cotton, cloth, oil, and sugar
What were East African boats called?
What were West African village economies based on?
producing food, and still is today
What was West African society tied around?
kinship and caste
What did African religions do?
they varied from place to place, but shared certain features
What played a key role in preserving African history and culture?
oral tradition
the passing on of something, such as stories or history
What are still an important part of African life today?
rituals, dances, and ceremonies
How did West Africans treat their ancestors?
they honored them and greatly respected them
At one time, how many scholars studied at Timbuktu?
25,000 students
Is the Arabic language still relavent today?
Which empire ended do to Almoravid invasions?
Which empire ended do to poor leadership?
Which empire ended do to invasions from Morocco?
How long did the Ghana empire last?
300-1000 AD
How long did the Mali empire last?
1200-1450 AD
How long did the Songhai empire last?
1450-1600 AD
Describe key accomplishments from the Ghana empire.
worked with iron, and prospered in the gold and salt trade
How much did the population grow during the Mali empire?
50 million
How much bigger is the Sahara desert than the U. S.?
about .2 million sq miles