Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Ch 13 & 14 Psychology
Terms in this set (87)
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions
the concept that diseases, psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, updated in 2000, widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Although some psychological disorders are culture found, others are universal. In every known culture some people have:
If a lawyer washes his hands 100 times a day for no apparent reason and has no time left to meet with clients, the hand washing will be labeled as a disorder because it is:
distressing & dysfunctional
A therapist says that psychological disorders are sicknesses and people with these disorders should be treated as patients in a hospital. The therapist believes in the:
Many psychologists reject the "disorders-as-illness" view and contend that other factors may also be involved-for example, the person's bad habits and poor social skills. This view represents the_approach.
One study found that psychologists using the DSM-IV agreed on a diagnosis for more than 80 percent of patients. It's reliability stems from its reliance on
structured interview procedures
generalized anxiety disorder
anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations
an anxiety marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity or situation
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
An episode of intense dread, accompanied by trembling, dizziness, chest pains or choking sensations and feelings of terror is called
a panic attack
Anxiety that takes the form of an irrational and maladaptive fear of a specific object or situation is called
Marina became consumed with the need to clean the entire house and refused to participate in any other activities. A therapist Marina consulted diagnosed her as having
Rats subjected to unpredictable shocks in the lab became chronically anxious. To the learning researcher, this suggests anxiety is a response to
The learning perspective proposes that phobias are
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts and feelings
dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly multiple personality disorder
rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
Dissociative identity disorder is relatively rare. It is controversial because
It is almost never reported outside North America
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes (major depressive disorder, mania and bipolar disorder)
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more ekes or significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
a mood misorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotional actions
A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
The disorder that is so common it has been called the common cold of psychological disorders is
Although bipolar disorder is as adaptive as depression, it is much less common and it affects
women and men equally
Depression affects many people, often following a stressful event, such as a divorce or job change. The rate of depression is
increasing among young people
Depression can often be alleviated by drugs that increase supplies of the neurotransmitters
norephinephrine and serotonin
Psychologists who emphasize the importance of negative perceptions, beliefs and thoughts in depression are working within the _ perspective.
Subtypes of Schizophrenia:
Paranoid: delusions or hallucinations
Disorganized: Speech or behavior or flat or inappropriate emotion
Catatonic: Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements.
Undifferentiated: Many & varied symtoms
Residual: Withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared.
People with schizophrenia may hear voices using self-destruction. Hearing voices in the absence of auditory stimulation is an example of a
Schizophrenia is actually a cluster of disorders characterized by positive or negative symptoms. A person with positive symptoms is likely to experience
Chances for recovery from schizophrenia are best when
onset is sudden, in response to stress
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patters that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect
Pet scans of murderers' brains have revealed
lower than normal activities in the frontal lobes
One predictor of psychiatric disorders that crosses ethnic and gender lines is
Most psychological disorders strike by early adulthood. The symptoms of _ appear around age 10; _ tens to appear later around age 25.
phobias; major depression
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
A therapist who helps patients search for the unconscious roots of their problems and offers interpretations of their behaviors, feelings and dreams is drawing from
According to psychoanalytic theory, important relationships in a patient's life, like parents may be reflected in strong feelings for the analyst. This process is called
Compared with psychoanalysts, humanistic therapists are more likely to emphasize
self-fulfillment and growth
Especially important to Rogers' client centered therapy is the technique of active listening. The therapist who practices active listening,
restates and clarifies the client's statements
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as alcohol).
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Behavior therapists apply learning principles to the treatment of problems such as phobias and alcohol dependency. In such treatment, the goal is to:
eliminate the unwanted behavior
Behavior therapists often use counterconditioning to produce new responses to old stimuli. Two CC techniques are systematic desensitization and
Systematic desensitization, which teaches people to relax in the presence of progressively more anxiety provoking stimuli, has been especially effective in the treatment of
In token economies, people who display a desired behavior earn tokens that they can later exchange for other rewards. Token economies are an application of
Cognitive therapy has been shown to be especially effective in treating
In family therapy, the therapist assumes that
each persons actions triggers reactions from other family members
Method: Analysis and interpretation, Therapy Aims: Reduced anxiety thru self insight
Method: Active listening and unconditional positive regard, Therapy Aims: Personal grown thru self insight
Method: Counterconditioning, exposure, desensitization, averse conditioning, and operant conditioning, Therapy Aims: Extinction and relearning
Method: Reveal and reverse self blaming; Therapy aims: healthier thinking and self-talk
Method: Understanding family social system, exploring roles, improving communitaion; Therapy aims: relationinship healing
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other severe thought disorders
study of effects of drugs on mind and behavior
most enthusiastic of optimistic view of the effectiveness of psychotherapy comes from:
reports of clinicians and clients
on average, troubled people who undergo therapy are more likely to improve than those that do not. Studies show that _therapy is most effective overall.
no one type of
three ingredients of evidence-based practice are
research evidence, clinical expertise, and knowledge of the patient
anti anxiety drugs
used to control anxiety and agitation
used to treat depression, increasingly used for anxiety, work by altering neurotransmitters
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients by cutting nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain. (for severe depression)
antipsychotic drugs used to calm schizophrenia patients can have unpleasant side effects like
sluggishness, tremors, and twitches
Xanax and Ativan are
one substance that brings relief to bipolar people is
Students also viewed
Chapter 15 pyschology myers
chapter 14-- Psych Disorders
PSYC 107 Ch. 14 - Psychological Disorders
Sets found in the same folder
Unit 14: Social Psychology
Psych Chapter 12
PSY ch 10 Quiz
Ch 6 & 7 Psychology
Other sets by this creator
Module 7 Vocab dialysis
a. Describe an example of a person with high achievement motivation. b. What are two examples of stimulus motives, and why are such motives important? c. Why is sensory deprivation an important concept in the study of human motivation and emotion?
In an experiment by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer, participants labeled their arousal as joyous or irritable, depending on the people they were with. The experiment established that emotions are not only physiological but are also a. psycho-dynamic. b. humanistic c. biological. d. cognitive. e. behavioral.
In an experiment to test the effects of room temperature on test performance the independent variable is a. the scores on the test be fore the experiment begins. b. the scores on the test at the end of the experiment. c. whether the teacher was male or female. d. the temperature of the room. e. the style of test (multiple choice versus essay).
What would you do if you were faced with a moral dilemma? Consider the following story. Your best friend, Ellen, has been accepted to her parents' alma mater. Ellen and her parents have always dreamed that she would go to college there too. She's taking the same English course you took last year, and her final paper is due in one week. Her teacher, who replaced the teacher you had last year, has told her that the controversial topic she chose for her term paper is unacceptable. A month of research and writing has been wasted, and she will not be given extra time to finish. If she fails this class, her dreams and her parents' dreams will be crushed. Do you let her submit the paper you wrote last year as her own? Answer the question truthfully and gauge where you are in Kohlberg's framework. Tell the story to people of different ages to see where they stand as well.
Recommended textbook solutions
Elliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Samuel R. Sommers, Timothy D. Wilson
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Spencer A. Rathus
Other Quizlet sets
Chapter 13 chapter test
N282 Test #3
Intro to Psych: Chapter 13