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63 terms

Chapter 1 Scope

STUDY
PLAY
1. Disease-causing microorganisms are called
pathogens.
2. The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called
decomposers.
3. The microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called
prokaryotes.
4. When humans manipulate, the genes of microorganisms the process is called
genetic engineering.
5. Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?
mosquito
6. All microorganisms are best defined as organisms that
are too small to be seen with the unaided eye.
7. Which activity is an example of biotechnology?
humans using yeast to make beer and wine
8. Which of the following is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms?
lack cell structure
9. The Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms was
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.
10. Pasteur used swan-neck flasks in his experiments to prove that
dust in the air was a source of living microorganisms
11. Which of the following is not a process in the scientific method?
belief in a preconceived idea
12. Spontaneous generation is the belief that
living things arise from nonliving matter.
13. Koch's postulates are criteria used to establish that
a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease.
14. Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed?
kingdom
15. Which of the following is a scientific name?
Bacillus subtilis
16. Taxonomy does not involve
Koch's postulates.
17. The smallest and most significant taxon is
species.
18. The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called
phylogeny.
19. A scientist studying the sequence of nucleotides in the rRNA of a bacterial species is working on
determining evolutionary relatedness
20. A scientist discovers a new microbial species. It is a single-celled eucaryote without cell walls. In which kingdom will it likely be classified?
Protista
21. A scientist collects grass clippings to find the source of an outbreak of tularemia is an example of working in the field of
epidemiology.
22. Helminths are
parasitic worms.
23. All of the following pertain to photosynthesis, except
it occurs only in members of the kingdom Plantae.
24. Organisms called parasites are
always harmful to their host.
25. The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was
Joseph Lister.
26. Which scientist showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis?
Robert Koch
27. Select the correct descending taxonomic hierarchy (left to right):
family, genus, species
28. When assigning a scientific name to an organism,
both genus and species names are italicized or underlined.
29. The scientist/s that proposed assigning organisms to one of three domains is/are
Carl Woese and George Fox.
30. In Whittaker's system, the protozoa and algae are classified in the kingdom
Protista.
31. Which kingdom does not contain any eukaryotes?
Monera
32. Which of the following are the main decomposers of the earth?
bacteria and fungi
33. The most common infectious cause of death worldwide is
HIV/AIDS.
34. Which of the following diseases is transmitted by mosquitoes?
malaria
35. All of the following are correct about prokaryotes, except
they have organelles.
36. All of the following contribute to the rise of emerging diseases, except
the decrease in drug resistant bacteria.
Which scientist discovered heat resistant bacterial spores?
Ferdinand Cohn
38. Which of the following is the correct way to type the scientific name of this bacterium?
Staphylococcus aureus
39. Where are you most likely to find bacteria belonging to the domain Archaea?
in a hot spring
40. When microbes are introduced into the environment to restore stability, the process is called
bioremediation.
41. Which of the following diseases probably involves microbial infection?
gastric ulcers
female infertility
coronary artery disease
cervical cancer
42. Cyanide is a chemical used to dissolve gold and is harmful to the environment and organisms living there. A couple of biochemists came up with the idea of using the bacteria Pseudomonas to break down the cyanide used by a Gold mining company. This use of bacteria is a good example of ____.
Bioremediation
43. Which of the following branches of Microbiology is important when someone is broken out in hives and experiencing respiratory distress due to an exposure to a microbial toxin?
Immunology
44. Bacteria and fungi are important in bioremediation. These decomposers are also called ___.
Saprobes
45. Members of the same species share many more characteristics compared to those shared by members of the same kingdom. True False
True
46. Viruses are not classified in any of Whittaker's 5 kingdoms. True False
True
47. Members of the kingdom Fungi are photosynthetic. True False
False
48. A scientist studying helminths is working with bacteria. True False
False
49. The fossil record has established that prokaryotes existed on earth for approximately 2 billion years before eukaryotes appeared. True False
True
50. It has been over 25 years since a new infectious disease has emerged in the world. True False
False
51. The term sterile means free of all life forms. True False
True
52. All microorganisms are parasites. True False
False
53. During a scientific experiment, the control group is used to directly test or measure the consequences of a variable in the study. True False
False
54. The scientific method involves formulating a tentative explanation, called the hypothesis, to account for what has been observed or measured. True False
True
55. Once an organism is assigned to a particular taxonomic hierarchy, it is permanent and cannot be revised. True False
False
56. A hypothesis must be tested before it can be considered a theory. True False
True
57. The names of the three proposed Domains are: Bacteria, Protista, Eukarya. True False
False
58. One distinguishing characteristic of the archaebacteria is that they live in extreme environments. True False
True
59. The scientific field called _____ is involved in the identification, classification, and naming of organisms.
Taxonomy
60. _____ is the area of biology that states that living things undergo gradual structural and functional changes over long periods of time.
evolution
61. Living things ordinarily too small to be seen with the unaided eye are termed _____.
microorganisms
62. _____ are the group of microorganisms composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering.
viruses
63. A scientist that constructs a hypothesis and then tests its validity by outlining predicted events of the hypothesis followed by experiments to test for those events is using the _____ approach.
scientific method