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This secret ballot was likewise being introduced more widely in the states to counteract boss rule. Bribery was less feasible when bribes couldn't tell if the were getting their money's worth from the bribed.
Acts like the Desert Land Act of 1877, Forest Reserve Act of 1891, and the Carey Act of 1894 were passed. Also the Newlands Act of 1902 was passed to collect money from the sale of public lands.
"Rule of Reason"
This doctrine held that only those combinations that "unreasonably" restrained trade were illegal. This fine-print proviso ripped a huge hole in the government's antitrust net.
A deal for capital, labor, and the public at large. The three C's involved were control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.
City Manager System
Presented in Galveston, TX in 1901. Expert staffed commissions to manage urban affairs. Also designed to take politics out of municipal administration.
This was basically Taft encouraging Wall Street bankers to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the United States, especially in the Far East and in the regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal.
In 1903, Congress passed this. It was aimed primarily at the rebate evil. Heavy fines could now be imposed both on the railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them.
Eugene V. Debs
Hero of the Pullman strike, he won 420,793 voters in the election of 1908 for his socialist party... even though he didn't win, this was cool.
Frances Willard and WCTU
This was an antiliquor campaign. It was the largest organization of women in the world. Allied with the Anti-Saloon League.
In 1906, Congress passed this. More effective than the Elkins Act of 1903, it restricted free passes. It expanded the ICC and made the ICC reach to include express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines. The commission could now nullify existing rates and stipulate maximum rates.
One of the leading muckrakers. He/She wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904.
Progressives favored this so that voters could directly propose legislation themselves, thus bypassing the boss-bought state legislatures.
Jacob A. Riis
He wrote How the Other Half Lives. This book influenced TR later on. The book was about an indictment of the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-gnawed human rookeries known at the NY slums.
This guy was a preservationist of the Sierra Club, and the federal government wanted to build a dam in the Hetch Hetchy valley in Yosemite National park.
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
This consumer progressive act was passed in 1906. It decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can. This act originated from details in the Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair.
These people targeted the malpractices of life insurance companies and tariff lobbies. They attack the beef trust, the money trust, the railroad barons, and the corrupt amassing of American fortunes
Muller V. Oregon
Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers.
Northern Securities Case
Led by J.P. Morgan and James. J Hill, Roosevelt attacked this railroad holding company. In 1904, the court decided that Roosevelt was correct and this company was dissolved.
Taft embraced this group. This was the republican group. Country Club Republicans. Non-progressive republicans.
Taft signed this tariff bill, thus betraying his campaign promises and outraging the progressive wing of his party, heavily drawn from the Midwest.
Pure Food and Drug Act
In 1906, this was passed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and drugs. It went along with the meat inspection act, and all this was brought up by the Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair.
This would enable voters to remove faithless elected officials, particularly those who had been bribed by bosses or lobbyists.
Progressives also wanted this. This device would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people, especially laws that had been railroaded through a compliant legislature by free-spending agents of big business.
Robert M. La Follette
Governor of Wisconsin, was the most militant of the progressive Republican leaders. He reached the governor's chair in 1901. He wrested considerable control from the crooked corporations and returned it to the people. He also perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities, while laboring in close association with experts on the faculty of the state university at Madison.
The Social Gospel
Messengers of this promoted a brand of progressivism based on Christian teachings. They used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor. Women suffrage was added.
Triangle Shirtwaist company fire
A factory in 1911 was caught on fire. Locked doors and other violations of the fire code turned the factory into a death trap. This caused the Legislature to pass much stronger laws regulating the hours and conditions of sweatshop toil.
He wrote, The Jungle, which was meant to focus attention on the plight of the workers, but instead disgusted the public with the description of the meat. This led to future acts such as the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
William Howard Taft
He signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, and he split the Republican party. He was the successor of Theodore Roosevelt. He pressed a antitrust suit against the Standard Oil Company and U.S. steel.
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